ARTIST
SONG
ALBUM
Bukka White Strange Place Blues The Complete Bukka White
Casey Bill Weldon You're Laughing, NowCasey Bill Weldon Vol. 3 1935-1938
Freezone Indian Squaw BluesCountry Blues: The Essential
James Son Thomas After The WarGateway to the Delta
Big Joe Williams A Change Gotta Be MadeBig Joe Williams (Storyville)
Wright Holmes Alley BluesAlley Special
Mother McCollum Jesus Is My Air-O-PlaneBlues Images Vol. 11
Blind Gussie Nesbitt God Is Worried At Your Wicked WaysBlues Images Vol. 11
Big Joe Turner Nobody In MindBig Joe Rides Again
Big Joe Turner Married WomanRhythm & Blues Years
Robert Cooksey & Alfred Martin Hock My ShoesBobby Leecan & Robert Cooksey Vol. 1 1924-1927
Sleepy John Estes Whatcha Doin'I Ain't Gonna Be Worried No More
Will Ezell Pitchin' BoogieShake Your Wicked Knees
Frank Tannehill Four O'Clock Morning BluesRare Country Blues Vol. 4 1929-c.1953
Lonnie Clark Broke Down Engine Down In Black Bottom
Jimmy Yancey Jimmy's RocksShake Your Wicked Knees
Littl Brother MontgomeryOut West BluesFaro Street Jive
Otis Rush So Many RoadsDoor To Door
Tiny PowellDone Made It OverBay Area Blues Blasters Vol 1
Blind Blake Miss Emma LizaBlues Images Vol. 11
Mississippi Sheiks Cracking Them ThingsBlues Images Vol. 11
Mance Lipscomb You Be Kind To MeThe Unexpurgated Folk Songs of Men
Mance Lipscomb Stavin' ChainThe Unexpurgated Folk Songs of Men
Babe Reid One Dime BluesMusic from the Hills of Caldwell County
Willie DossCoal Black MareBlues at Newport 1964
Furry LewisGood Morning JudgeGood Morning Judge
Lightnin' Slim Lightning Slim BoogieThe Ace Records Blues Story
Slim HarpoWhat's Goin' OnThe Legendary Jay Miller Sessions Vol. 4
Silas HoganOut And Down BluesTrouble: The Excello Recordings
Charley Patton Magnolia BluesBlues Images Vol. 11
Jim ThompkinsBedside BluesBlues Images Vol. 11

Show Notes:

2014 Blues Calendar

Another mx show today, this one leaning heavily on some great pre-war blues cuts and some excellent down-home blues sides from the post-war era. In addition we twin spin rare sides by Mance Lipscomb, a pair by Big Joe Turner a fine set of piano blues plus plenty of other interesting sides.

Today's show spotlights a half-dozen tracks from the vaults of collector John Tefteller who's record collection contains some of the rarest blues 78's in existence. According to his website he has the world's largest inventory of blues, rhythm & blues and rock & roll 78's with over 75,000 in stock. Every year around this time Tefteller, through his Blues Images imprint, publishes his Classic Blues Artwork Calendar with a companion CD that matches the artwork with the songs. The CD’s have also been one of the main places that newly discovered blues 78’s turn up. This year marks the eleventh year of the calendar and CD's and once again Tefteller has turned up some long lost 78's which I'll be featuring today. Among those are "Miss Emma Liza b/w Dissatisfied Blues” which is he last known missing record by Blind Blake. The record was found last year at a flea market in North Carolina. Cut in the heart of the depression, the record obviously sold poorly explaining its extreme rarity.

Then there's Blind Gussie Nesbit who was a guitar evangelist from Georgia. His first recording session was in 1930 in Atlanta for Columbia. Four titles were recorded but only two were issued. Five years later he had his second and final session in New York City for Decca. Ten songs were recorded in one day, but only four made it onto shellac. Between his two sessions, Nesbit also recorded two duets with Jack Gowdlock for Victor in 1931. Those were also held back. His 78 "The Joy of My Salvation b/w God Is Worried At Your Wicked Ways” is reissued for the first time on this collection. I asked John about this record and he told me that he "had the Mint copy that was used. Had it for some time and didn't realize it hadn't been re-issued until someone requested I put them out on one of my CD's."

The Unexpurgated Folk Songs of Men
Read Liner Notes

Although the Mississippi Sheiks were very popular, the record included on this CD, “Cracking Them Things b/w Back To Mississippi” is very rare. Tefteller reached out to the community of blues record collectors for a copy but none was to be found. Obviously someone has a copy because it was issued on Document's complete reissue of the Sheiks output although Tefteller's reissue sounds light years better. This transfer comes from the original metal master that still resides in the Sony/Columbia vaults.

We also feature pristine, newly discovered 78's by Jim Thompkins, "Bedside Blues", and Charlie Patton's "Magnolia Blues" that are  superior to previous issued copies. Thompkins (credited in the Brunswick ledger as Peg Leg Jim Thompkins) cut two songs, “Bedside Blues” and “Down Fall Blues”, the latter never issued. When issued on 78 the flipside of “Bedside Blues” was "We Got To Get That Thing Fixed" by Speckled Red. This copy is a much superior copy to the one previously issued and comes from an old store stock copy in Dallas.

In addition, several years ago Tefteller uncovered a huge cache of Paramount promotional material. Paramount marketed their "race records", as they were called, to African-Americans, most notably in the pages of the Chicago Defender, the weekly African-American newspaper, and sent promotional material to record stores and distributors. Tefteller bought a huge cache of this artwork from a pair of journalists who rescued them from the rubbish heap some twenty years previously and has been reprinting the artwork in his annual calendars. Other newly discovered record promotional material are reprinted in the calendars and this year is notable for great photos of Henry Thomas, Mother McCollum (her "Jesus Is My Air-O-Plane" is featured today), Furry Lewis and Bessie Smith.

Every year Tefteller manages to top himself with these calendars and the 2015 edition is already one to get excited about. If you haven't heard the news, Tefteller just won an ebay auction for Tommy Johnson's  extremely rare "Alcohol And Jake Blues b/w Ridin' Horse" (Paramount 12950) for a whopping $37, 000 which as far a I know is the most ever paid for a blues 78. I asked John about the record and he wrote me that he "picked up the Tommy Johnson on Thursday, LOOKS Beautiful! Will play it at Nevins house next week in NJ." That's Richard Nevins head of Yazoo records who also does all the remastering for the CD's.

The two Mance Lipscomb numbers featured today come form the rare anthology The Unexpurgated Folk Songs of Men collected by Mack McCormick. I had pulled this record out recently when I was writing notes for a reissue of the great Buster Pickens album on Heritage which will be put out by Document. There happens to be two Pickens numbers on the album which hopefully will be reissued as well. The contents were described in the notes as "…An informal song-swapping session with a group of Texans, New Yorkers, and Englishmen exchanging bawdy songs and lore, presented without expurgation…" The album was originally issued in a generic white cover without any printing. Song titles are listed on the disc labels, but none of the many performers are credited anywhere on the release. Included inside the cover sleeve was a large, 14-page booklet explaining the history of the songs, as well as a large disclaimer presenting the recorded material as a scholarly document which, along with the generic white sleeve and anonymous performers, were evidently measures taken against possible charges of obscenity. Some of the performers have been ostensibly identified by researchers. The album was later reissued with a cover as Raglan R 51.

Farro Street Jive
Read Liner Notes

We hear several fine pianists today including Will Ezell, Frank Tannehill, Lonnie Clark, Little Brother Montgomery and Jimmy Yancey. Born in Texas, pianist Ezell played in the jukes around Shreveport before moving to Detroit and Chicago. He was a frequent accompanist for Paramount Records and even took Paramount’s star, Blind Lemon Jefferson's body back to Texas for burial. Ezell cut sixteen sides for the label between 1927 and 1929 and backed artists such as Lucille Bogan, Elzadie Robinson, Bertha Henderson, Blind Roosevelt Graves and others.

A pianist from Dallas, Frank Tannehill backed Pere Dickson on his two 1932 recordings made in his hometown. Tannehill began his own recording career with two songs recorded in Chicago in 1937. 1938 found him in a San Antonio studio waxing four more songs. His third and final session was in 1941 in Dallas for a four song session. He was never heard from again.

"Out West Blues" was first recorded by Little Brother at his legendary 1936 session in New Orleans. Our version comes from a marvelous record he cut for Folkways called Farro Street Jive. Brother cut three fine record for Folkways in the 60's including Blues and Church Songs.

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ARTIST
SONG
ALBUM
Little Son Willis Nothing But The Blues Down Home Blues Classics: California & The West Coast 1948-1954
Alex Moore Neglected Woman Whistling Alex Moore 1929-51
Dr. Hepcat Hattie Green Houston Might Be Heaven: Rockin' R&B In Texas 1947-1951
Wright Holmes Good Road BluesDown Behind The Rise 1947-1953
Jesse ThomasDouble Due Love You Down Behind The Rise 1947-1953
Junior BrooksLone Town Blues Modern Downhome Blues Sessions Vol. 1
Jimmy DeBery Before LongDeep South Blues Piano 1935-1937
Manny NicholsNo One To Love MeDown Home Blues Classics: Texas 1946-1954
Blind Willie McTellEast St. Louis Blind Willie McTell & Curley Weaver: The Post War Years
Johnny Beck You Gotta Lay Down Mama Down Home Blues Classics: Texas 1946-1954
Dennis McMillon Paper Wooden Daddy New York City Blues 1940-1950
Schoolboy Cleve She's GoneDown Home Blues Classics Vol.5: Memphis & The South 1949-1954
Pee Wee Hughes Country Boy Jook Joint Blues
Papa Lightfoot Wine, Whiskey & Women Blues Harmonica Wizards
Goldrush All My Money GoneRural Blues Vol. 1 1934- 1956
Leroy Ervin Blue, Black and Evil Texas Blues ( Bill Quinn's Gold Star Recordings)
Big Charlie Bradix Numbered Days The Travelling Record Man
Pete Franklin Down Behind the Rise Down Behind The Rise 1947-1953
Walter Bradford Reward For My Baby Sun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1958
Charley BookerWalked All NightSun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1958
Frank Edwards Gotta Get Together Jook Joint Blues
Henry Hill & Doctor Ross That Ain't Right Sun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1958
Joe Hill LouisWe All Gotta Go SometimeSun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1958
John Lee Down At The Depot Rural Blues Vol. 1 1934- 1956
Dan Pickett 99 1/2 Won't Do Shake That Thing!: East Coast Blues 1935-1953
Pinetop Slim Applejack Boogie Modern Downhome Blues Sessions Vol. 4
Big Boy SpiresAbout To Lose My Mind Chicago Slickers 1948-1953
Otis HintonWalking Downhill Black Cat Trail
Frankie Lee SimsWalking With Frankie 4th & Beale And Further South
Luther HuffBulldog Blues Down Home Blues Classics Vol.5: Memphis & The South 1949-1954
Lane HardinKeep 'em Down The Modern Down Home Blues Sessions Vol. 4
Boyd Gilmore Ramblin' On My Mind The Modern Downhown Blues Sessions Vol. 1
Baby Face Turner Blue Serenade The Modern Downhown Blues Sessions Vol. 2
Willie NixLonesome BedroomThe Traveling Record Man

Show Notes:

Down Behind The Rise
Read Liner Notes

In the immediate post-war era the music was rapidly changing, R&B was on the rise and and older blues styles were falling out of fashion. Yet for awhile at least, there was still a market for rural down home blues as evidenced by the popularity of artists like Lightnin' Hopkins, John Lee Hooker and Smokey Hogg. Between 1944 and 1964, more than 600 record companies tried their hands at recording blues. Many failed or had limited success while others grew and became major players. Paul Vernon wrote that this was “the last grand hurrah of local blues recorded for, and often by, local entrepreneurs, neither folkloric nor college oriented, but music for the culture from which it grew." Today we spotlight some of my down home blues favorites spanning the years 1947 through 1957.

A good number of today's tracks come from two album series that made a big impression on me; one was on the Nighthawk label which issued a series of great anthologies in the late 70's. I discovered these a bit later at my college radio station which had the entire series. I was particularly drawn to Down Behind The Rise 1947-1953 which introduced me to Jesse Thomas, Wright Holmes and Johnny Beck, all of whom are featured today. All of these sides have since been reissued on many different collections. The other series was Kent's Anthology of Blues, a twelve volume set of albums, some spotlighting single artists, others anthologies of great down home blues. I discovered numerous great artists from that series including Willie Nix, Pinetop Slim, Charlie Bradix, Baby Face Turner, Junior Brooks, Boyd Gilmore and Charley Booker, all artists featured today. The series was resurrected in grand fashion by Ace Records over the course of six CD's with terrific notes by Jim O'Neal and loads of additional tracks.

I should also mention the Sun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1956, a nine LP box set that I picked up back in High School at Bleeker Bob's in Greenwich Village. I have played this set endlessly over the years and today spin several tracks from that box including Walter Bradford, Charley Booker, Henry Hill & Doctor Ross and Joe Hill Louis. Below is is some information on a few of today's featured performers.

Wright Holmes: Good Road BluesWright Holmes was born in Hightower, TX. on July 4, 1905. In 1930 he moved to Houston where he started playing in clubs on Dowling Street and also broadcasted on KTRH. In 1947 he made two recordings for Bill Quinn's Gold Star label but Quinn didn't issue the recordings because he thought that Holmes sounded too much like Lightnin' Hopkins who was his top selling blues artist. Later that year, another man named Abe Conley recorded four songs by him at his studio. Conley sold the masters to Miltone. Two of the songs were issued on Miltone. Miltone was later bought out by Gotham who reissued the two songs and issued one other with another song never issued.

Jesse Thomas recorded sporadically from the late 1920's through the early 1990's and despite his longevity didn't achieve much in the way of success or recognition. In 1929, at 18, Thomas cut four excellent sides for Victor.By the post-war era Thomas had developed a brilliant, highly individual style unlike anyone else. Between 1948-1958 Thomas cut sides for nine different West Coast labels. Thomas' "Double Due Love You" was a song made a big impression when I first heard it on Down Behind The Rise.

Modern Records' partner Joe Bihari had made his first field trip to the South around September 1951 following the breakdown in relations with Sam Phillips. This was after Rocket "88" by Jackie Brenston and Ike Turner ended up on Chess instead of Modern, and became a #1 R&B smash hit. Until then Phillips had been recording Modern's Memphis-area artists including B.B. King, Joe Hill Louis and Rosco Gordon. Following the split with Phillips, Bihari hit paydirt with B.B. King's "3 O'Clock Blues," thus encouraging Bihari to authorize further trips in the South. The Biharis launched a new label for these field recordings, Blues & Rhythm, in February 1952. The first major reissue of this material was in 1969 and 1970, issued as the Anthology Of The Blues 12-volume LP series on Kent. In later years Joe Bihari said: "I was a gutsy kid who wasn't afraid of anything, traveling during a period where there was immense segregation and discrimination against African Americans. Indeed, I am proud of myself for doing what I could to resist this horrific prejudice. Looking back, I think I made major contributions to this rich music that we have all over America – and all my hard work paid off as this blues music is now recognized worldwide."

As Joe Bihari remembers, it was on a trip to Atlanta in 1949 that he conducted his first on-the-road session after he just happened to hear a guitarist playing on the street there. The bluesman he discovered was Pine Top Slim. "I took him right into our distributor's office and I recorded him at the local radio station where Zeas Sears was the top jock" "Applejack Boogie b/w I'm Gonna Carry On" were released on a short-lived Modern subsidiary called Colonial in 1949. The Biharis shelved the rest of the Pine Top Slim session, and it was only when Frank Scott and Bruce Bromberg compiled the historic Kent Anthology of the Blues LP series  that the rest of the material resurfaced.

Blues From The Deep SouthFor a long time it was thought Lane Hardin's 1935 record, "California Desert Blues b/w Hard Time Blues" was the only record he ever recorded. Unknown to most collectors Hardin cut a vanity record circa 1948. The record was found by collector Steve LaVere sometime in the 1990's in Los Angeles and purchased by Tefteller and has since been reissued. In around 1950 a group of artists sent in a batch of unlabeled acetates that were discovered at Modern in 1970. These recordings have remained a focal point for intense discussion ever since. When these sides were first issued on Kent's Blues From The Deep South LP, Arkansas Johnny Todd and Leroy Simpson were invented for two sides released. It turns out that Todd is actually Lane Hardin.

Junior Brooks (nicknamed "Crippled Red") was from Pine Bluff, AR. He worked the local club scene with his fellow musicians Baby Face Turner, Elmon "Driftin' Slim" Mickle, and Sunny Blair. The Bihari brothers held two sessions in Little Rock in 1951 and '52 to record some of the local talent. Brooks made four recordings at the 1951 sessions. He died shortly afterward. Also from this session we feature tracks by Baby Face Turner and Boyd Gilmore.

Years ago, I don't remember where, I picked up a record on Arhoolie's Blues Classic series called Juke Joint Blues. There were  some great sides on that record but the one I played over and over was Dr. Hepcat's rollicking, humorous "Hattie Green", a totally unique rendition of this classic Texas blues  number. Born in Austin, Texas, January 9, 1913, as Lavada Durst he  learned to play the piano as a child and emulated the styles he heard growing up. "I was self-taught," he recalls "I used to slip across the street to the church house and one-finger that piano. From Robert Shaw (Arhoolie CD 377), Durst learned the rudiments of what is now referred to as the Texas barrelhouse piano style. He worked part time as a disc jockey from 1948 to 1963 on KVET radio in Austin. On the air, he used the call name “Dr. Hepcat,” and during his show, which featured primarily rhythm and blues and jazz, he used to jive talk to pique the interests of his listeners in making introductions to records, public service announcements, and commercials. He cut a handful of sides in 1949 and latter day sides.

Now I remember exactly where I snagged a copy of Dan Pickett: 1949 Country Blues. I was at my favorite record shop, Finyl Vinyl, on New York's Second Avenue in the Village and they had the album displayed on the wall reserved for notable new records. Most times I walked in there without a plan, just poking around and always leaving with some albums tucked under my arm. This time I had been looking for this album after reading an intriguing review in Juke Blues magazine. Dan Pickett did one recording session for the Philadelphia-based Gotham label in 1949. His real name was James Founty who was born in Pike County, Alabama on August 31, 1907. Five singles were issued by the label while the rest of the titles weren't unearthed until four decades later (with some alternate takes of some issued titles to boot). No one is certain what he did after his one and only session as far as his life. He passed away in Boaz, Alabama on August 16, 1967, a few days short of his 60th birthday.

Jess Thomas: D Double Due Love YouIn strange twist I became friends decades later with Axel Küstner who played a big part in unraveling the mystery behind Pickett. Küstner went from his home in Germany to Alabama in 1993 to see what he could dig up. He found Founty's surviving family and also the lawyer's son, who had his father"s papers, though Founty's file was missing. He obtained the only known photograph that shows Founty and some information on his life. Künster published a two page teaser about the trip in Juke Blues where he wrote: "Until the whole story is published in Juke Blues, I'll just tell you this much: [Founty was] a classic rambler in the best blues tradition…"Künster wrote that over fifteen years ago and still no full article has been written. I've been trying to gently prod him into writing the full article – maybe someday! In 2010 John Jeremiah Sullivam wrote an article on Pickett for The Oxford American that published the Pickett photo, transcribed an interview with Künster and provided a bit more information on Pickett's life.

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ARTIST
SONG
ALBUM
Kokomo Arnold Coffin Blues Kokomo Arnold Vol. 3 1936-1937
Big Bill BroonzyFalling RainAll The Classic Sides
Tampa RedStormy Sea BluesThe Essential
Josephine ParkerI Got A Man In New OrleansField Recordings, Vol. 8: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi 1934-1947
Alice Moore Grass Cutter Blues Kokomo Arnold Vol. 3 1936-1937
Black Boy ShineBrown House BluesThe Piano Blues Vol. 11: Texas Santa Fe 1934-1937
Mack Rhinehart & Brownie StubbliefieldBroke And HungryDeep South Blues Piano 1935-1937
Little Brother Montgomery Santa Fe BluesLittle Brother Montgomery 1930-1936
Bo CarterBo Carter's AdviceGreatest Hits
Chatman Brothers If You Don't Want Me, Please, Don't Dog Me AroundBo Carter & The Mississippi Sheiks
Willie Williams'Twas On a Monday Field Recordings Vol. 1: Virginia 1936-1941
J. WilsonBarrel House BluesRed River Blues 1934-1943
James Henry DiggsFreight Train BluesVirginia Traditions: Southwest Virginia Blues
Charlie McCoy Let My Peaches BeCharlie & Joe McCoy Vol. 1 1934-1936
Harlem HamfatsMy Daddy Was a Lovin' ManHarlem Hamfats Vol. 1 1936
Lil JohnsonMy Stove's In Good Condition Raunchy Business: Hot Nuts & Lollypops
Victoria Spivey Black Snake Swing Victoria Spivey Vol 3 1929-1936
Jimmie Strothers & Joe Lee Lord Remember Me Field Recordings, Vol. 8: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi 1934-1947
Blind Roosevelt GravesWoke Up This MorningAmerican Primitive Vol. I: Raw Pre-War Gospel
Blind Boy Fuller (I Got a Woman, Crazy for Me) She's Funny That Way Blind boy Fuller: Remastered 1935-1938
The Two CharliesDon’t Put Your Dirty Hands On Me Charley Jordan Vol. 3 1935-1937
Walter ColemanMama Let Me Lay It On YouCincinnati Blues
Red NelsonCrying Mother BluesBroadcasting the Blues
Bill Gaither Pins And NeedlesBill Gaither Vol. 1 1935-1936
Ozella JonesI Been a Bad, Bad Girl (Prisoner Blues)Alan Lomax: Blues Songbook
Memphis MinnieI'm A Bad Luck WomanMemphis Minnie Vol. 2 1935-1936
Peetie WheatstrawWorking Man (Doing’ The Best I Can)Peetie Wheatstraw Vol. 3
Bumble Bee SlimThis Old Life I'm LivingBumble Bee Slim Vol. 5 1935-1936
Casey Biil Weldon Somebody Changed the Lock on That DoorCasey Bill Weldon Vol. 1 1935-1936
Oscar WoodsLone Wolf BluesTexas Slide Guitars: Oscar Woods & Black Ace 1930-1938
Robert JohnsonLast Fair Deal Gone DownThe Centennial Collection
Sonny Boy NelsonPony BluesCatfish Blues: Mississippi Blues Vol. 3 1936-1942
Washboard SamMixed Up BluesWashboard Sam Vol. 1 1935-1936
The Hokum BoysNancy JaneThe Hokum Boys Vol. 2 & Bob Robinson 1935-1937
Lemuel JonesPo' FarmerField Recordings, Vol. 8: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi 1934-1947
Elinor Boyer You're Gonna Need My Help SomedayField Recordings, Vol. 8: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi 1934-1947

Show Notes:

Walter Coleman: Mama Let Me Lay It On YouToday’s show is the tenth installment of an ongoing series of programs built around a particular year. The first year we spotlighted was 1927 which was the beginning of a blues boom that would last until 1930; there were just 500 blues and gospel records issued in 1927 and increase of fifty percent from 1926 a trend that would continue until the depression. To feed the demand other record companies conducted exhaustive searches for new talent, which included making trips down south with field recording units. The Depression, with the massive unemployment it brought, had a shattering effect on the pockets of black record buyers. Sales of blues records plummeted in the years 1931 through 1933. Things picked up again in 1934 with the companies recording full-scale again. It was the urban style of blues that now dominated the market – artists such as Tampa Red, Kokomo Arnold, Memphis Minnie, Big Bill Broonzy, Casey Bill Weldon, Bill Gaither  and Bumble Bee Slim recorded prolifically. Blind Boy Fuller was one of the few down-home artists whose sales could compete with urban artists (he cut ten titles in 1936).

Leroy Carr, who epitomized the urban blues, passed away in 1935 with the recording companies trying to cede the mantle to artists such as Bumble Bee Slim and Bill Gaither. Blues guitarist Bill Gaither cut well over a hundred sides for Decca and OKeh between 1931 and 1941. Gaither was close to the blues pianist Leroy Carr, and following Carr's death recorded under the moniker Leroy's Buddy for a time.

Casey Bill Weldon and Kokomo Arnold were two of the popular Chicago guitarists, alongside the well established Tampa Red.  Between 1927 and 1935 Weldon cut just over 60 sides for Victor, Bluebird and Vocalion. He was also an active session guitarist, appearing on records by Teddy Darby, Bumble Bee Slim, Memphis Minnie, Peetie Wheatsraw and others. In the late 1920's, Arnold settled for a short time in Mississippi, making his first recordings in May 1930 for Victor in Memphis under the name of "Gitfiddle Jim." Arnold moved to Chicago in order to be near to where the action was as a bootlegger, but the repeal of the Volstead Act put him out of business, so he turned instead to music as a full-time vocation. From his first Decca session of September 10, 1934 until he finally called it quits after his session of May 12, 1938, Kokomo Arnold made 88 sides. Arnold also did session work Casey Bill Weldon: Somebody Changed the Lock on That Doorbacking Peetie Wheatstraw, Roosvelt Sykes, Alice Moore (heard backing her on today's "Grass Cutter Blues"), Mary Johnson and others.

Of the recorded blues groups, the swinging, jazzy sound of  the Harlem Hamfats fit right in with the times. The Hamfats were a crack studio band formed in 1936 by black talent scout Mayo Williams. Its main function was backing jazz and blues singers such as Johnny Temple, Rosetta Howard, and Frankie "Half Pint" Jackson for Decca Records; The Hamfats' side career began when its first record "Oh Red" became a hit. The band included brothers Joe and Charlie McCoy ,leader Herb Morand, Odell Rand, and John Lindsay, Horace Malcolm and drummers Pearlis Williams and Freddie Flynn .

Among the popular woman of the day were Memphis Minnie, Georgia White, Lil Johnson while Victoria Spivey was one of the last hold outs from the era of the 1920's blues queens. Lil Johnson first recorded in Chicago in 1929 on five songs. She did not return to the recording studio until 1935. In 1936 and 1937, she recorded over 40 songs, mostly on the Vocalion label, some featuring Big Bill Broonzy on guitar and Lee Collins on trumpet. Spivey updated her sound and waxed twelve sides in 1936 with a swinging band that featured the aforementioned Lee Collins. Spivey's "Black Snake Swing", backed by her Hallelujah Boys, was a jazzy remake of a song she recorded at her very first session in 1926.

From 1934 until 1945 there were three main race labels, all selling at 35 cents: Decca, the Brunswick Record Corporation's Vocalion, and RCA-Victor's Bluebird. There were two other labels that featured a fair number of blues during this period; the store group Montgomery Ward, with a label of the same name, drew at various times on Gennett, Decca and Bluebird and Sears Roebuck used ARC material on its Conqueror label. According to John Godrich and Robert M.W. Dixon in their classic book Recording The Blues, the record companies "had three way of unearthing new talent: by placing advertisements in local newspapers, especially just before a field unit was due in a nearby town; by just relying on Sonny Boy Nelson: Pony Blueschance comments from singers, concerning other who might be good recording propositions; and by employing their own talent scouts, who carry out steady, systematic searches. The last method was intensively employed in the the thirties – Rootlet Sykes, for instance, would find likely artists for Decca (or, sometimes, for Lester Melrose). But despite this, race catalogs in the thirties relied more heavily on a small nucleus of popular singers than they had in the twenties. …There was far less recording in the field in the 'thirties; in view of the popularity of the Chicago singers there was less need." Decca, for example, seems to have only gone South once, to New Orleans in 1936, where they recorded Walter Vincson and Oscar Woods.

Then there was Bluebird who over two days on October 15-16, 1936 conducted sessions at the St. Charles Hotel in New Orleans. Little Brother Montgomery cut eighteen sides plus backed singer Annie Turner on her four numbers (two were unissued), Sonny Boy Nelson (Eugene Powell) cut six sides under his own name as well as backing Robert Hill, who cut ten , and his wife Mississippi Matilda on her three sides. In addition Bo Carter cut ten sides, the Chatman brothers (Lonnie and Sam) cut twelve sides, Tommy Griffin cut a dozen sides and Walter Vincson  (as Walter Jacobs) cut two sides. As John Godrich and Howard Rye wrote in Recording The Blues: "The New Orleans session in 1936 was Victor's last substantial race field recording; in subsequent years they recorded a fair number of gospel quartets in he field, but only one or two unimportant blues singers."

ARC made field recordings in 1936 in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, Fort Worth Texas and San Antonio where they recorded Black Boy Shine and Robert Johnson. Harold Holiday, known as Black Boy Shine, was one of the acknowledged leaders among the Santa Fe group of pianists. He recorded more prolifically then the rest; cutting 18 issued sides in 1936 and 1937. Johnson recorded sixteen sides in November and a final thirteen sides in June the next year.

Record Sales Chart
Graph showing number of blues and gospel records issued by year from
the book Recording The Blues (click to enlarge)

The year 1936 saw some notable field recordings captured by John Lomax who traveled through Virginia, South Carolina and Florida collecting primarily from convicts. Recordings featured today include Ozella Jones' "I Been a Bad, Bad Girl (Prisoner Blues)", Josephine Parker's "I Got A Man In New Orleans" recorded in Parchman Farm, James Henry Diggs, who's "Freight Train Blues" features two guitars and a bugle and Jimmie Strothers, a blind banjo and guitar player from Virginia who recorded 15 tracks for Alan Lomax and Harold Spivacke.

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ARTIST
SONG
ALBUM
Arzo Youngblood Bye And Bye BluesGoin' Up The Country
Boogie Bill WebbDooleyville BluesGoin' Up The Country
Cornelius Bright My Baby's GoneGoin' Up The Country
Mager JohnsonBig Road BluesGoin' Up The Country
Isaiah ChattmanFound My Baby GoneGoin' Up The Country
Babe Stovall & Herb Quinn See See Rider South Mississippi Blues
Issac Youngblood & Herb QuinnHesitating BluesSouth Mississippi Blues
Eli OwensMuleskinner BluesSouth Mississippi Blues
Herb QuinnCaseySouth Mississippi Blues
Babe Stovall Candy ManSouth Mississippi Blues
Woodrow Adams & Fiddlin' Joe MartinPony BluesHigh Water Blues
Houston Stackhouse & Carey "Ditty" MasonTalkin' About YouHigh Water Blues
Charlie Taylor & Willie Taylor I Got The BluesHigh Water High
Isiah ChattmanCold In Hand BluesHigh Water High
L.V. Conelry High Water High High Water High
Willard Artis 'Blind Pete' BurrellDo Lord Remember MeSorrow Come Pass Me Around
Babe StovallThe Ship Is At The Landing Sorrow Come Pass Me Around
Robert “Nighthawk” Johnson Ain't No Grave Hold My Body Down Sorrow Come Pass Me Around
Dorothy Lee, Norma Jean & Shirley Marie JohnsonYou Give An Account Sorrow Come Pass Me Around
Chester Davis, Compton Jones & Furry LewisGlory Glory Hallelujah Sorrow Come Pass Me Around
Roosevelt HoltsThe Good Book Teach YouPresenting The Country Blues
Roosevelt HoltsMaggie Campbell BluesPresenting The Country Blues
Roosevelt HoltsDown The Big Road45
Roosevelt HoltsPackin´ Up Her Trunk Roosevelt Holts & Friends
Arzo YoungbloodMaggie Campbell BluesThe Legacy of Tommy Johnson
John Henry 'Bubba' Brown Canned Heat Blues The Legacy of Tommy Johnson
Boogie Bill WebbShow Me What You Got For SaleThe Legacy of Tommy Johnson
Houston Stackhouse & Carey Ditty Mason –Bye Bye BluesBig Road Blues
Houston Stackhouse & Carey Ditty Mason –Big Road BluesBig Road Blues
Jack Owens Jack Ain't Had No Water It Must Have Been the Devil
Jack Owens Cherry Ball It Must Have Been the Devil

Show Notes:

Goin' Up The County
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Today's show spotlights field recordings made by David Evans in the 1960's and 70's. The recordings from this period were a direct result of Evans' investigation into Tommy Johnson in the late 1960’s. His research led to the book Tommy Johnson (Studio Vista, 1971) and Big Road Blues (1982). Evans recorded many men who knew or learned directly from Johnson including Roosevelt Holts, Boogie Bill Webb, Arzo Youngblood, Isaac Youngblood, Bubba Brown, Babe Stovall, Houston Stackhouse and Tommy’s brother Mager Johnson. The bulk of these artists had not been recorded previously. The field recordings Evans collected have been issued on several albums, unfortunately almost all of them are out of print. Today we feature selections from the following various artist albums: Goin' Up The Country, South Mississippi Blues, High Water Blues, Sorrow Come Pass Me Around and The Legacy of Tommy Johnson. In addition we feature tracks from the Roosevelt Holt albums Presenting The Country Blues Of, Roosevelt Holt and Friends, The Franklinton Muscatel Society plus the Jack Owens album It Must Have Been The Devil and a collection of sides by Houston Stackhouse and Carey Mason titled Big Road Blues.

Goin' Up The Country was the first collection of Evans' field recordings. All the recordings were made in 1966. As Evans wrote: “When I first made these recordings in 1966, interest in the blues in America was still largely an underground phenomenon. Britain was the center of interest and research. Consequently, I sent a tape of my best recordings to Simon Napier, the editor of the pioneering British magazine Blues Unlimited. He was sufficiently impressed with the music that he kindly arranged with Mike Vernon and Neil Slaven to have an album brought out on British Decca, Goin' Up The Country. The album was subsequently reissued and remastered on Rounder in 1975. These sides have not appeared on CD. Of these recordings, Evans wrote: “…in 1965 I began recoding and interviewing blues artists on my own, and in the summer of 1966 spent about five weeks in Louisiana and Mississippi taping older country blues styles. These fifteen performances are among the best I recorded there.” Among the performers, only a few had recorded previously: Boogie Bill Webb cut some sides for Imperial in the early 50's, Babe Stovall had recorded a full-length album and Isiah Chattman played rhythm guitar on some sides by Silas Hogan.

South Mississippi Blues
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South Mississippi Blues collects songs recorded between 1965 and 1971 and was issued on Rounder in the mid-70's. Evans writes of this collection: “All nine performers heard here grew up and learned their music in the vicinity of Tylertown (Walthall Co.) Mississippi in the south-central part of the state near the Louisiana border. …All nine of these musicians know each other, and most have at one time or another, played together in various combinations.”

The recordings on High Water Blues were recorded between 1965 and 1970, mainly in Louisiana and Mississippi and issued on the Flyright label in 1974. Of this collection Evans writes: “ln the last ten years I've recorded hundreds of blues by dozens of performers in Mississippi and Louisiana and some of the other southern states. Some of these artists like Roosevelt Holts and Jack Owens, Iwas able to record extensively, and l have presented complete LP's of their work. But there were many others who only recorded a handful of good songs for me. …I've selected for this record the best blues from some of here artists that I met briefly some years ago.”

The Legacy of Tommy Johnson was issued on the Saysdic Mathbox label in 1972, a companion record to Evans' 1971 book titled Tommy Johnson. As Evans Writes: “The songs on this album, although they are created by twelve different musicians, were all at one time part of the repertoire of Tommy Johnson, perhaps the greatest and best remembered folk blues performer the state of Mississippi has ever produced. …Versions of Johnson’s songs derive exclusively from personal contact, though many of the artists undoubtedly heard Johnson’s records at one time or other.”

The Legacy of Tommy Johnson
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Sorrow Come Pass Me Around is a beautiful collection of spiritual and gospel songs performed in informal non-church settings between 1965-1973. Most are guitar-accompanied and performed by active or former blues artists. The songs were recorded between 1965 and 1973 . Evans writes: “Most records of black religious music contain some form of gospel singing or congregational singing recorded at a church service. This album, though, tries to present a broader range of performance styles and contexts with the hope of showing the important role that religious music plays in the Southern black communities and in the daily lives of individuals.” The album was originally issued on Advent in 1975 and has just been reissued on vinyl on the Dust-To-Digital label.

Roosevelt Holts was born in 1905 near Tylertown, Mississippi, and took up the guitar when he was in his mid-twenties. He started to get serious about music in the late 1930's when he encountered Tommy Johnson. Evans began recording Holts in 1965 resulting in two LP's (both out of print): Presenting The Country Blues (Blue Horizon,1966) and Roosevelt Holts and Friends (Arhoolie, 1969-1970) plus the collection The Franklinton Muscatel Society featuring his earliest sides through 1969 which is available on CD. In addition selections recorded by Evans appeared on the following anthologies (all out of print): Goin' Up The Country (Decca, 1968), The Legacy of Tommy Johnson (Matchbox, 1972), South Mississippi Blues (Rounder, 1974 ?), Way Back Yonder …Original Country Blues Vol. 3 (Albatros, 1979 ?), Giants Of Country Blues Vol. 3 (Wolf, 199?) and a very scarce 45 ("Down The Big Road b/w Blues On Mind") cut for the Bluesman label in 1969 that we feature today.

Houston Stackhouse's family moved to Crystal Springs, Mississippi in the mid-1920's, where he learned songs from Tommy Johnson and his brothers and took up guitar. In the early 1930's, he moved to Hollandale, Mississippi where his cousin, Robert Lee McCullum (later known as Robert Nighthawk) lived. In 1946, Houston moved to Helena, Arkansas where he played with Sonny Boy Williamson on The King Biscuit Time show, on KFFA Radio. He played with Elmore James, Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Jimmy Rogers, Roosevelt Sykes and Earl Hooker. He continued to play, but less frequently after he married in the late 1950's. Periodically, he returned to the King Biscuit show. In 1967 he made his first recordings cutting field recordings for George Mitchell and shortly after for David Evans that same year.

High Water Blues
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Jack Owens belonged to the pioneering generation of Bentonia bluesmen, which included Skip James and the unrecorded Henry Stuckey. Just as James’s recording career was nearing its end, Owens was beginning his, in 1966; his first album (It Must Have Been The Devil), produced by Evans, was not released until 1971 for the Testament label. The music of Owens and James, as Evans wrote, was distinguished by “haunting, brooding lyrics dealing with such themes as loneliness, death and the supernatural . . . Altogether it is one of the eeriest, loneliest and deepest blues sounds ever recorded.”

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ARTIST
SONG
ALBUM
Bruce ConforthInterview
Unknown When Sun Go DownNegro Songs Of Protest
UnknownThirty Days in JailNobody Knows My Name
Unknown6 Months Ain't No SentenceNobody Knows My Name
UnknownBlack WomanNobody Knows My Name
UnknownBoogie Lovin'Nobody Knows My Name
UnknownCold Iron ShacklesNegro Songs Of Protest
UnknownDelia Cap'n You're So Mean
Texas Johnny BrownThere Goes The Blues Atlantic Blues: Guitar
Texas Johnny BrownThe Blues RockAtlantic Blues: Guitar
Roosevelt HoltsMy Phone Keeps Ringing Goin' Up The Country
Jack OwensI Won't Be Bad No More It Must Have Been the Devil
Houston Stackhouse & Carey Ditty MasonTraveling BluesBig Road Blues
Black Boy ShineWest Columbia WomanLeroy Carr & Black Boy Shine: Unissued Test Pressings & Alternate Takes 1934-1937
Pinetop BurksFannie Mae BluesSan Antonio 1937
Robert ShawPut Me In The AlleyThe Ma Grinder
Detroit JuniorThe Way I FeelHard Times, Chicago Blues Of The Sixties
Kitty StevensSleeping by YourselfChance Vintage Blues Vol. 4
Papa Charlie JacksonAll I Want Is A Spoonful Papa Charlie Jackson Vol. 1 1924-1926
Peg Leg HowellBanjo BluesAtlanta Blues
Charley JordanMy 'Lovin' Good' BluesCharley Jordan Vol. 1 1930-1931
LeadbellyDeath LetterThe Remaining ARC & LoCR Vol. 1

Show Notes:

African American Folksong and American Cultural PoliticsThe first hour of today's program is devoted to Lawrence Gellert and inspired by a new book by Bruce Conforth titled African American Folksong and American Cultural Politics: The Lawrence Gellert Story. We'll be chatting with Bruce today and playing some remarkable field recordings made by Gellert in the 30's. Gellert's life and recordings have been shrouded in a veil of mystery and secrecy and much of what we know of Gellert and his recordings are inaccurate. As Conforth writes: “Lawrence Gellert was one of the most misunderstood and overlooked folksong and folklore collectors of the 20th century.” Conforth does a fine job untangling Gellert's convoluted story and putting the music in its proper context. Gellert was among the first to make recordings in the field in the 1920's, although the issued recordings are all from the 1930's. It wasn't until the 70's that his recordings were finally issued: Rounder issued Negro Songs of Protest in 1973 and Cap'n You're So Mean in 1982 and another album of material was issued on the Heritage label in 1984 titled Nobody Knows My Name (the latter two produced by Conforth).

As anyone who's listened to this show knows, I have a long standing interest in field recordings and have always been fascinated by Gellert who's always been something of a shadowy figure. Conforth's book reads like a detective novel – complete with a twist ending, which I won't go into here. Gellert was basically his own worst enemy and his neglect mostly his own making. "In truth," Conforth writes "the fault of this misunderstanding  and omission was mostly his own. He began collecting African American material purely by happenstance only to find the songs he transcribed and recorded used by the American left and Communist Party of America in ways that would cause other trained collectors to question the veracity of virtually all of his published work.  Add to this the incredibly early date at which his collecting and recording commenced (the 1920s) and the criticism heaped upon him-some out of sheer jealousy, some from a misunderstanding of the scope of his work-that caused most scholars to ignore him, and today he is merely a footnote."

Conforth also makes clear that protest songs were only a small part of the songs Gellert collected.  "…the bulk of his material has similarities to almost every other African American folksong collection. He collected numerous traditional blues and spiritual tunes that help validate the authenticity of his collection. His blues recordings outnumber those deemed protest, and this latter group actually consists of traditional blues, misconstrued as protest by those who chose to use them for political purposes."

In the second hour of today's show we spin a mix of blues including two features that point the way to future shows; we feature a set of field recordings captured by David Evans in the 1960's with a whole show devoted to those recordings next week. We also spotlight a trio of fine Texas piano players which will be a multi-part show down later this year.  In addition we play two cuts by the recently departed Texas Johnny Brown.

Lawrence Gellert
Lawrence Gellert

Evans' field recordings from the 60's and 70's was a result of his  investigation into Tommy Johnson in the late 1960’s. Evans recorded many men who learned directly from Johnson including Roosevelt Holts, Boogie Bill Webb, Arzo Youngblood, Isaac Youngblood, Bubba Brown, Babe Stovall, Houston Stackhouse and Tommy’s brother Mager Johnson. The field recordings Evans collected have been issued on several albums, unfortunately almost all of them are out of print. I'll be spotlighting all of these albums next week and provide much more background on these recordings.

The last couple of weeks I've been working on liner notes for a reissue, to be released on the Document label, of Buster Pickens' self-titled album released originally on the Heritage label in 1962. Pickens was one of the last survivors of the "Santa Fe" group of Texas pianists. Mack McCormick noted that the “itinerant pack of pianists who came to be known loosely as 'the Santa Fe group,' partly because they favored that railroad and partly because a stranger asking for the name of a selection was invariably told 'That's The Santa Fe.' …They were known as The Santa Fe after the railroad that straddle Fort Bend County with a big triangle just Southwest of Houston, providing access westward to the high plains, cotton country, east to the piney-woods lumbering camps and north (pretty much following the old Chisholm Trail) to a string of cities and watering places. "Here", Oliver notes “was where the music thrived and pianists could be found like Pinetop Burks, Son Becky, Rob Cooper, Black Boy Shine, Andy Boy, Big Boy Knox, Robert Shaw, Buster Pickens and the singers who worked with them like Walter 'Cowboy' Washington and Joe Pullum.”

Texas Johnny Brown passed away July 1st at the age of 85 at his home in Houston, Texas. Brown moved from Mississippi to Houston in the 1940's, and by 1946 was performing at places like Shady's Playhouse. He hooked up with Amos Milburn and the Chickenshackers, playing with the band for about four years and getting his nickname from Milburn's manager. As "Texas" Johnny Brown and His Blues Rockers (featuring Milburn on piano), Brown recorded "There Goes the Blues"/"The Blues Rock" for Atlantic around 1949. After three years in the military Brown briefly relocated to Louisiana, working on the road with Milburn. By the mid-'50s he was back in Houston playing sessions with trumpeter/arranger Joe Scott at Peacock and Duke Records. Brown also regularly toured with acts like Parker and Bland, who were represented by the Buffalo Booking Agency. Brown was perhaps best known for writing "Two Steps From the Blues," the title track from Bland's landmark 1961 album. In the 60's Brown retired from music but returned in the 90's, cutting some acclaimed records and remained active until shortly before his death.

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