Entries tagged with “Robert Nighthawk”.

Willie MabonMichelleI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Willie MabonInterviewI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Willie MabonI'm HungryI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
James BrewerI Don't Want No Woman, She Got Hair Like Drops Of RainI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
James BrewerInterviewI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
James BrewerBig Road BluesI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Eddie Boyd Five Long YearsI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Eddie Boyd InterviewI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Eddie Boyd Her Picture In A FrameI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Johnny YoungWhy Did You Break My HeartI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Johnny YoungBetter Cut It OutI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Sunnyland SlimIt's You BabyI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Sunnyland SlimSunnyland's JumpI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Walter HortonTrouble In MindI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Walter HortonLouise LouiseI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Walter HortonLet's Have A Good TimeI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Washboard SamBooker T BluesI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
Washboard SamAll By MyselfI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
John Lee GrandersonEasy StreetI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
John Lee GrandersonInterviewI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
Avery Brady Gangster's BluesI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
Avery Brady InterviewI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
Little Brother MontgomeryWest Texas BluesI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
Little Brother MontgomeryInterviewI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
Little Brother MontgomeryUp The Country BluesI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
Arvella GrayJohn HenryI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
Arvella GrayInterviewI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
St. Louis Jimmy Can't Stand Your Evil WaysI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
St. Louis Jimmy Poor Boy BluesI Blueskvarter Vol. 2
Big Joe WilliamsSouthern BluesI Blueskvarter Vol. 3
Big Joe WilliamsRootin' GroundhogI Blueskvarter Vol. 3

Show Notes:

Today's show is part one in a series of shows devoted to Chicago blues of the 1960's. Today we spotlight remarkable recordings made for a documentary titled I Blueskvarter, Swedish for In Blues Quarters. The bulk of today's notes come from Scott Baretta who wrote the notes for the series; Scott also edited the Swedish blues magazine Jefferson, is currently the host of the Highway 61 radio show for Mississippi Public Broadcasting, is head writer and researcher (with Jim O’Neal) for the Mississippi Blues Trail, and former editor of Living Blues magazine. In fact it was through Scott that I got a copy of the first volume of I Blueskvarter  more than a decade ago.

Olle Helander
Olle Helander

These recordings were made by Olle Helander, a radio host for the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation who traveled to Chicago in 1964 for the express purpose of recording the blues. In addition there were trips to New Orleans and Memphis all of which were the raw material for the 21 part documentary radio series I Bluekvarter which first aired on Swedish Radio in the Autumn of 1964. Outside of poor sounding bootlegs, these recordings sat on the shelf for over thirty years until release in the beginning in the late 1990's by the folks who run the Swedish blues magazine Jefferson. The recordings were released as three 2- CD sets and feature intimate recordings by Willie Mabon, James Brewer, Champion Eddie Boyd, Yank Rachell, Johnny Young, Sunnyland Slim, Walter Horton as well as Babe Stovall, Snooks Eaglin and others. The recording trip documented on this show wasn't Helander's first to "the blues quarters".  In 1961 Helander spent several months visiting the music scenes of New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago. Helander arrived in Chicago with the vague idea of investigating the blues, but initially had no luck tracing down blues artists until a chance meeting with the guitarist Big Joe Williams. Hiring Williams as a guide, Helander soon met up with Willie Dixon, Chicago’s premier blues talent scout and producer, as well as a number of the artists he would record in 1964: Sunnyland Slim, Arvella Gray, James Brewer, Little Brother Montgomery, and St. Louis Jimmy Oden.

Unlike his 1961 trip, Helander returned in 1964 with a clearer mission. In order to insure good sound quality, Helander hand-picked the sound-technician Hans Westman, whom he regarded as Swedish Radio's best, and armed with a portable Nagra tape recorder and four channel mixer, they set off to the States. The two landed in New York on May the 4th, and after making the rounds in the city’s jazz scene over the next days, arrived in Chicago on the 11th. Helander and Westman spent several days preparing their recording sessions, spending time with Willie Dixon, as well as Pete Welding of Testament Records and DownBeat magazine, and Bob Koester, owner of Delmark Records. The blues recordings commenced on May 14th. Not having the budget to book a conventional recording studio, the only suitable place they could find was the Sutherland Lounge, at 4569 South Drexel Avenue in Chicago’s South Side. Conducting sessions on five separate occasions, they would leave Chicago with ninety-nine full takes from fourteen different artists/units. Below you will find background on some of today's featured artists.

For me, and others whose opinion I value, the recordings made by Walter Horton are a high water mark. As Barretta writes: "It’s probably no accident that Helander chose as his introductory theme Walter Horton’s 'Trouble In Mind', the eerie sounds of his lonesome harmonica, accompanied sparsely by Robert Nighthawk on guitar, about as far as one could get from the schlager and pop music dominating the Swedish charts of 1964. As a rather shy, quiet I Blueskavrter Vol. 1individual, Horton never had much taste for leading his own bands or recording sessions. Horton was much more comfortable in a supporting role and as writer Neal Slavin wrote “was one of the few musicians capable of elevating the slightest material into something approaching a masterpiece.”

James Brewer was born in Brookhaven, Mississippi on 1920 and moved to Chicago in the 1940's where he spent the latter part of his life busking and performing both blues and religious songs at blues and folk festivals, on Chicago's Maxwell Street and other venues. In 1962, however, he was offered an opportunity to play blues at a concert at Northwestern University and also began a regular gig at the No Exit Cafe which lasted for two decades. He went on to play major festivals and clubs in the United States, Canada and Europe. His first recordings appear on Blues From Maxwell Street (Heritage, 1960), cut several sides for Pete Welding in 1964, the same he was recorded during the making of the documentary And The Is Free and cut the full-length albums Jim Brewer (Philo, 1974) and Tough Luck (Earwig, 1983).

John Lee Granderson, Avery Brady and Arvella Gray all performed on Maxwell Street, and all under-recorded. In addition to the full length Hard Luck John (issued posthumously in 1998), Tennessee bluesman John Lee Granderson cut sides on other Testament compilations with further sides appearing on various anthologies. Among those Granderson played with were Robert Nighthawk, Big Joe Williams and Daddy Stovepipe. Brady's first recordings were made for this documentary. A few more songs by Avery were recorded that year and few in 1965 that were issued on the Testament and Storyville labels. He never recorded again. Gray made his first recordings in 1960 (released on the Heritage label) and in early 1964 he made sides for his own Gray label, selling the 45's on the street. In 1964, like James Brewer, he was also recorded for the documentary And This Is Free. He was regular performer on Maxwell Street on Sundays. Gray's only album, 1972's The Singing Drifter was reissued on the Conjuroo label in 2005.

Captured were several artists active in the pre-war years incluing Washboard Sam, St. Louis Jimmy and Little Brother Montgomery. Washboard Sam was one of the most popular and prolific blues artists of the 30's and 40's. Between 1935 and 1949 he recorded hundreds of sides for RCA's Bluebird and Victor labels. His last commercial session was a date with Big Bill Broonzy for Chess in 1953. These recordings were his first recordings in a decade. St. Louis Jimmy Oden made his debut back in 1932 but when recorded for these sessions he was mainly working as a songwriter, although he did cut a full-length album for Bluesville as recently as 1960.

In addition to Little Brother Montgomery, several other pianists were captured during the trip including Willie Mabon, Eddie Boyd and Sunnyland Slim. Mabon made his debut in 1949 but it was his 1952 debut release on the Parrot label, "I Don't Know," topped the R&B charts for eight weeks after being sold to Chess. From then on, Mabon was a Chess artist, returning to the top R&B slot the next year with "I'm Mad" and the Top Ten "Poison Ivy" in 1954. Although he didn't score any he big hits after Chess he continued cutting solid sides for  Federal in 1957, Mad in 1960, Formal in 1962, and USA 1963-64. He moved to Paris in 1972.

I Blueskavrter Vol. 2In 1941, Boyd settled in Chicago. He backed Sonny Boy Williamson on his 1945 classic "Elevator Woman," also accompanying Bluebird stars Jazz Gillum, Tampa Red, and Jazz Gillum on wax. Boyd made his 1947 debut for RCA staying with the label through 1949. Boyd reportedly paid for the date that produced "Five Long Years" himself, selling the track to JOB Records where it topped the R&B charts during 1952. Al Benson signed Boyd to a contract with his Parrot label and promptly sold it to Chess. At Chess he waxed "24 Hours" and "Third Degree," both huge R&B hits in 1953 and several other fine sides. Boyd became enamored of Europe during his tour with the 1965 American Folk Blues Festival, so he moved to Belgium. He recorded prolifically during the late '60sand in the early '70s settled in Helsinki where he played often and lived until his death.

For more than 50 years Sunnyland Slim rumbled the ivories around the Windy City, playing with virtually every local luminary imaginable and backing the great majority in the studio at one time or another. Slim moved to Chicago in 1939 and set up shop as an in-demand piano man, playing for a spell with John Lee "Sonny Boy" Williamson before making his debut in 1947. Slim recorded prolifically until his death in 1995.

Andrew OdumIt's My Own Fault Farther Up The Road
Andrew OdumDon't Ever Leave Me All AloneFarther Up The Road
Andrew Odumake Me Back To East St LouisFarther Up The Road
Bill Williams Low and Lonesome Low And Lonesome
Bill Williams Blake's Rag LucillBlues, Rag & Ballads
Bill WilliamsyNobody's BusinessBlues, Rag & Ballads
Robert NighthawkLula MaeBlues Southside Chicago
Walter HortonCan't Help MyselfBlues Southside Chicago
Homesick JamesCrutch And CaneBlues Southside Chicago
Roosevelt CharlesCane Choppin'Blues, Prayer, Work & Trouble Songs,
Roosevelt CharlesMean Trouble BluesBlues, Prayer, Work & Trouble Songs,
Roosevelt CharlesI'm a Gamblin' ManBlues, Prayer, Work & Trouble Songs,
Johnny YoungTried Not To CryI Can't Keep My Foot From Jumping
Johnny YoungI Gotta Find My BabyI Can't Keep My Foot From Jumping
Johnny YoungI Know She's Kinda SlickI Can't Keep My Foot From Jumping
Rev. Robert WilkinsDo Lord Remember Me Memphis Gospel Singer
Rev. Robert WilkinsThe Prodigal SonMemphis Gospel Singer
Nyles Jones (Guitar Gabriel)Expressin' The Blues Welfare Blues
Nyles Jones (Guitar Gabriel)The Welfare BluesWelfare Blues
Nyles Jones (Guitar Gabriel)Southland Welfare Blues
Arbee StidhamWee Hours A Time For Blues
Arbee StidhamTake Your Hand Off My KneeA Time For Blues
Arbee Stidham Meet Me HalfwayA Time For Blues
Shirely Griffith Cool Kind Papa From New OrleansMississippi Blues
Shirely Griffith Maggie Campbell BluesMississippi Blues
Shirely Griffith Delta HazeMississippi Blues

Show Notes:

Blues Southside Chicago
Read Liner Notes

Over the years of doing this show I've played many long out-of-print records and I've finally decided to do a series of shows exclusively devoted to these records. While an impressive amount of blues has made it to the digital age, it may be surprising to some that there is a large cache of great blues albums, primarily from the 60's and 70's, that have never been reissued. I like to think of these records as sort of a hidden narrative of the blues running parallel but under the more mainstream blues or the blues records issued on some of the bigger labels, sort of the same as the field recordings I often play as compared to the commercial blues that was being issued. With the decline of CD's and the rise of digital music I have a feeling these great records will never get resurrected. The bulk of the albums featured in the series are from a slew of great small labels that issued records that probably sold in exceedingly small amounts. Over the course of these shows I'll be spotlighting albums from some of these great forgotten labels like Blue Goose, 77 Records, Albatros, Flyright, Spivey, Barrelhouse among others. For part two I'll be spotlighting a batch from Bluesville, which did have an extensive CD reissue program but left out some great titles. Below is some background on today's featuredrecords.

ABC-Paramount formed the BluesWay subsidiary in 1966 to record blues music. The label lasted into 1974, with the last new releases coming in February, 1974. The label issued over 70 albums, numerous 45's plus several titles that remain unreleased. The label has been spottily reissued on CD, usually by labels other than the parent company MCA, and in many cases these CD's themselves are out of print. The label had big names like B.B. King and John Lee Hooker but to me some of the more interesting records are by lesser knowns like Lee Jackson, Lucille Spann, L.C. Robinson and Andrew Odom. Farther Up The Road finds Odom is in fine form and the chemistry between him and Earl Hooker is faultless with Hooker getting plenty of room to cut loose.  Among the highlights are the moody "Stormy Monday", the bouncing "Don't Ever Leave Me All Alone" and a crackling version of "Farther Up The Road" (two songs appear on the Earl Hooker anthology CD Simply The Best). The record wasn't treated well by the critics as Mike Leadbitter clearly expressed in a 1973 edition of Blues Unlimited: "What a bitter disappointment! Muffled sound, endless boring songs and total lack of variation. What have BluesWay done to my heroes?" The album was finally released in 1973 and virtually sank without a trace. Despite Leadbitter's assessment this is a worthwhile release and well worth resurrecting on CD.

Also from the Bluesway vaults comes Johnny Young's I Can't Keep My Foot From Jumping, Young's final recording, passing not long after this superb date. Young is in top form playing mandolin on all cuts backed by a tough band featuring stellar guitar work from Louis Myers and the debut by harp man Jerry Portnoy who is uncredited.

Roosevelt Charles: Blues, Prayer, Work and Trouble Songs
Read Liner Notes

During the 1960's Nick Perls amassed a vast collection of blues records from the 1920's and 1930's. In 1968 he began transferring some of these onto LP, initially naming his label Belzoni but after five releases changed the name to Yazoo. Perls set up the Blue Goose Record label in the early 1970's. While on Blue Goose' sister label Yazoo Records Perls compiled rare 78 rpm recordings made in the 1920's by such singers and guitarists as Charlie Patton, Blind Willie McTell, the Memphis Jug Band, Blind Blake and Blind Lemon Jefferson, on Blue Goose Records he recorded only living artists. He cut albums by blues artists like Sam Chatmon, Son House, Yank Rachell, Shirley Griffith, Thomas Shaw and Bill Williams and Larry Johnson plus younger white blues performers like Jo Ann Kelly, Woody Mann, Graham Hine, John Lewis, Roger Hubbard, Roy Book Binder, R. Crumb & His Cheap Suit Serenaders and Rory Block. The bulk of the label's output remains out of print.

Bill Williams, was a 72-year old bluesman from Greenup, Kentucky, when he made his debut for Blue Goose in the early 1970's. Stephen Calt wrote that "The previously unrecorded Williams ranks among the most polished and proficient living traditional bluesmen, and has a large repertoire embracing ragtime, hillbilly, and even pop material. He is also the only known living associate of Blind Blake, his own favorite guitarist." Williams cut just two LP's, both for Blue Goose: Low And Lonesome and The Late Bill Williams 'Blues, Rags and Ballads plus had one song on the anthology These Blues Is Meant To Be Barrelhoused. In October of 1973, nearly three years to the day of his recording debut, he passed away in his sleep.Blues Southside Chicago is one of my favorite anthologies, a superb collection of Chicago blues recorded by Willie Dixon in 1964 and originally issued on UK Decca and reissued by Flyright in 1976. Additional sides from this session appeared on Have A Good Time – Chicago Blues issued in 1970 on the Sunnyland label which is also out of print. Mike Leadbitter discusses the aim of the record in his liner notes: "This album was recorded In Chicago's Southside by Willie Dixon with one aim in mind-to provide the English enthusiast with blues played as they are played in the clubs, without gimmicks and without interfering A & R men. This album is not intended to be commercial in any way and by using top artists and top session men an LP has been produced that doesn't sound as cold as studio recordings usually do."

Robert Wilkins: Memphis Gospel Singer
Read Liner Notes

Roosevelt Charles was recorded by folklorist Harry Oster in 1959 and 1960 with tracks appearing on anthologies and one full-length album, the long out of print Blues, Prayer, Work & Trouble Songs. Oster wrote the following: “Classified as a habitual criminal, a four-time loser, Roosevelt Charles has spent most of his adult life (he is now 45) in prisons, principally, Angola, alternating short periods of freedom with long sentences. …Despite his lengthy police record, Charles is sensitive, personable, intelligent and imaginative – a highly gifted creator, performer and interpreter of Negro music. His rebellion against society appears at least in part the explosion which results when a driving, intensely creative man can find no outlets for his energies and talents – a particularity difficult problem for a bright but almost illiterate Negro born in the Louisiana farm country."

Robert Wilkins passed away in 1987 and it's a shame he made so few recordings in his later years. He did make one of the great albums of the blues revival, Memphis Gospel Singer cut in 1963 for the Piedmont label and sadly never issued on CD (it was reissued on vinyl in 1984 on the Origin Jazz Library label.) His early sessions for Victor in 1928, Brunswick in 1929 and Vocalion in 1935 are classics. Other post-war sides by Wilkins can be found on the out-of-print anthology This Old World's In A Hell Of A Fix, The 1968 Memphis Country Blues Festival, …Remember Me (from the 1969Memphis Country Blues Festival)  plus a few other scattered sides.

Guitar Gabriel AKA Nyles Jones, recorded under the latter name the superb LP, My South, My Blues, for the Gemini label in 1970.Mike Leadbitter, writing in Blues Unlimited in 1970, called the single, "Welfare Blues", the most important 45 released that year. Gabriel dropped out of sight for about 20 years and his belated return to performing was due largely to folklorist and musician Timothy Duffy, who located Gabriel in 1991. With Duffy accompanying him as second guitarist on acoustic sets and as a member of his band, Brothers in the Kitchen, Gabriel performed frequently at clubs and festivals, and appeared overseas. He recorded several albums for Duffy's Music Maker label before passing in 1996.I'm under the impression that

Arbee Stidham is held in rather low opinion among the blues collecting community. The truth is that Stidham's music isn't, for the most part, all that exciting but A Time For Blues is a terrific outing with Stidham backed by the swinging Ernie Wilkins Orchestra. A jazz-influenced blues vocalist, Stidham also played alto sax, guitar and harmonica. His father Luddie Stidham worked in Jimme Lunceford's orchestra, while his uncle was a leader of the Memphis Jug Band. Stidham formed the Southern Syncopators and played various clubs in his native Arkansas in the '30s. He appeared on Little Rock radio station KARK and his band backed Bessie Smith on a Southern tour in 1930 and 1931. Stidham frequently performed in Little Rock and Memphis until he moved to Chicago in the 40's. Stidham recorded with Lucky Millinder's Orchestra for Victor in the 40's. He did his own sessions for Victor, Sittin' In, Checker, Abco, Prestige/Bluesville, Mainstream, and Folkways in the 50's and 60', and appeared in the film The Bluesman in 1973. Stidham also made many festival and club appearances nationwide and internationally. He did occasional blues lectures at Cleveland State University in the 70's.Shhirley Griffith: Mississppi Blues

Shirley Griffith was a deeply expressive singer and guitarist who learned first hand from Tommy Johnson as a teenager in Mississippi. Griffith missed his opportunity to record as a young man but recorded three superb albums: Indiana Ave. Blues (Bluesville, 1964, with partner J.T. Adams), Saturday Blues (Bluesville, 1965) and Mississippi Blues (Blue Goose, 1973). The fact that all three albums are out of print goes a ways in understanding why Griffith remains so little known. He also didn't benefit all that much from the renewed blues interest of the 1960's; he never achieving the acclaim of late discovered artists like Mississippi Fred McDowell, the critical appreciation of a Robert Pete Williams or the excitement surrounding rediscovered legends like Son House, Skip James or Mississippi John Hurt. He did achieve modest notice touring clubs with Yank Rachell in 1968, performed at the first Ann Arbor Blues Festival in 1969 and appeared at the Notre Dame Blues Festival in South Bend, Indiana in 1971. Griffith passed away in 1974.

Robert NighthawkG-ManProwling With The Nighthawk
Sonny Boy Williamson I Blue Bird BluesThe Original Sonny Boy Williamson I Vol. 1
Big Joe WilliamsRootin' Ground HogBig Joe Williams and the Stars of Mississippi Blues
Little Brother MontgomerySanta Fe BluesLittle Brother Montgomery 1930-1936
Sonny Boy NelsonLow DownMississippi Blues Vol. 3 - Catfish Blues
Bo CarterThe Ins And Outs Of My GirlBo Carter Vol. 4 1936-1938
Robert NighthawkProwling NighthawkProwling With The Nighthawk
Sonny Boy Williamson IJackson BluesThe Original Sonny Boy Williamson I Vol. 1
Walter Davis Good GalWalter Davis Vol. 3 1937-1938
Sonny Boy NelsonLong Tall Woman
Mississippi Blues Vol. 3 - Catfish Blues
Mississippi MatildaHard Working WomanMississippi Blues Vol. 3 - Catfish Blues
Robert HillLumber-Yard BluesNever Let The Same Bee Sting You Twice
Walter DavisFifth AvenueWalter Davis Vol. 3 1937-1938
Big Joe WilliamsBrother JamesBig Joe Williams and the Stars of Mississippi Blues
Sonny Boy Williamson I Got The Bottle Up And GoneThe Original Sonny Boy Williamson I Vol. 1
Little Brother MontgomeryThe First Time I Met You Little Brother Montgomery 1930-1936
Bo Carter Bo Carter's AdviceBo Carter Vol. 4 1936-1938
Sonny Boy NelsonPony BluesMississippi Blues Vol. 3 - Catfish Blues
Chatman Brothers (Lonnie And Sam)Jumping Out BluesMississippi Sheiks Vol. 4 1934-1936
Chatman Brothers (Lonnie And Sam)If You Don't Want Me Please Don't Dog Me 'RoundMississippi Sheiks Vol. 4 1934-1936
Bo Carter All Around Man - Part 2Bo Carter Vol. 4 1936-1938
Bo Carter Pussy Cat BluesBo Carter Vol. 4 1936-1938
Bo Carter Your Biscuits Are Not Big Enough For MeBo Carter Vol. 4 1936-1938
Sonnyboy Williamson ISugar Mama Blues The Original Sonny Boy Williamson I Vol. 1
Sonnyboy Williamson IGood Morning School GirlThe Original Sonny Boy Williamson I Vol. 1
Tommy Griffin On My Way BluesCountry Blues Collector's Items 1930-1941
Walter VincsonRats Been On My CheeseRats Been On My Cheese
Annie Turner Black Pony BluesLittle Brother Montgomery 1930-1954
Annie Turner Workhouse BluesLittle Brother Montgomery 1930-1954
Little Brother MontgomeryA. & V. Railroad Blues Little Brother Montgomery 1930-1936Remastered
Mississippi Matilda Happy Home BluesMississippi Blues Vol. 3 - Catfish Blues
Sonny Boy NelsonStreet Walkin'Mississippi Blues Vol. 3 - Catfish Blues
Robert HillTell Me What's Wrong With YouNever Let The Same Bee Sting You Twice
Little Brother MontgomeryWest Texas BluesLittle Brother Montgomery 1930-1936
Little Brother MontgomeryLouisiana Blues, Pt. 2Little Brother Montgomery 1930-1936
Little Brother MontgomeryFarish Street JiveLittle Brother Montgomery 1930-1936

Show Notes:

Today's show is the first installment spotlighting great recording sessions. Today we select two sessions conducted by the Victor (issued on Bluebird) label roughly a year-and-a-half apart, one in Chicago and one in New Orleans. In the pre-war era the record companies used mobile recording units to visit southern cities and capture the music of regional performers. For example, between 1927-1930 Atlanta was visited seventeen times, Memphis eleven times, Dallas eight times, New Orleans seven times and so on. During and after the Depression field trips dropped off precipitously. We play recordings today from remarkable field sessions cut by Louisiana and Mississippi artists on October 15-16, 1936 at the St. Charles Hotel, New Orleans. Dozens of titles were cut by Lonnie and Sam Chatmon, Bo Carter, Eugene Powell (as Sonny Boy Nelson), his wife Matilda Powell (as Mississippi Matilda), Walter Vincson, Little Brother Montgomery, Annie Turner and Tommy Griffin. The other session we spotlight was conducted in Chicago on May 5, 1937 resulting in two-dozen sides by Sonny Boy Williamson I and Robert Lee McCoy (Robert Nighthawk) who were making their recording debuts, plus sides by Big Joe Williams and Walter Davis.

Big Joe Williams: Rootin' Ground Hog 78Henry Townsend recalled driving Sonny Boy Williamson I, Robert Nighthawk, Walter Davis and Big Joe Williams to Aurora, Illinois, in his 1930 A Model Ford for their 1937 sessions: "I transferred them to Aurora, Illinois. There was about eight or nine of us …we stacked them in the car like sardines." This led to a marathon recording session resulting in six songs by Nighthawk (as Robert Lee McCoy), six by Sonny Boy Williamson I, four by Big Joe Williams and eight sides by Walter Davis. It was Sonny Boy's songs, especially, "Good Morning Little School Girl", "Bluebird Blues" and "Sugar Mama Blues" which were the biggest hits. Sonny Boy would go on to cut more than 120 sides in all for RCA from 1937 to 1947.

Robert Nighthawk cut six sides at this session all of which were released at the time. The popularity of the song "Prowling Night-Hawk" was the basis for his changing his surname in the early 40's. At the time of these recordings he was going by Robert Lee McCoy.

Walter Davis was among the most prolific blues performers to emerge from the pre-war St. Louis scene, cutting over 150 sides between 1930 and 1952. Davis enjoyed a fair amount of success before a stroke prompted him to move from music to the ministry during the early '50s.

Over two days on October 15-16, 1936 Bluebird conducted sessions at the St. Charles Hotel in New Orleans. Little Brother Montgomery cut eighteen sides plus backed singer Annie Turner on her four numbers (two were unissued), Sonny Boy Nelson (Eugene Powell) cut six sides under his own name as well as backing Robert Hill, who cut ten sides, and his wife Mississippi Matilda on her three sides. In addition Bo Carter cut ten sides, the Chatman brothers (Lonnie and Sam) cut twelve sides, Tommy Griffin cut a dozen sides and Walter Vincson  (as Walter Jacobs) cut two sides. As John Godrich and Howard Rye wrote in Recording The Blues: "The New Orleans session in 1936 was Victor's last substantial race field recording; in subsequent years they recorded a fair number of gospel quartets in he field, but only one or two unimportant blues singers."

Eugene Powell was born in Utica, Mississippi, December 23, 1908. He started playing the guitar at age eight. His mother ran a juke house so he grew up around music. He took the name "Sonny Boy Nelson" after his step father. His early experiences around Hollandale were with Robert Nighthawk, Robert Hill, and the great blues instrumentalist Richard "Hacksaw" Harney. In 1936 Eugene and wife "Mississippi Matilda" along with Willie "Brother" Harris traveled with the Chatmon Brothers to New Orleans to record for the Bluebird label. Bo Carter acted as agent for Nelson and Hill and received a fifth of the royalties for setting the session up.

In the 1930's Matilda Powell married musician Eugene Powell. She recorded four songs at the 1936 session, one of them, "Peel Your Banana",  went unissued. In 1952, Matilda separated from Eugene, and moved to Chicago taking their one son and five daughters with her.

Interviews with Eugene Powell by Brett Bonner and Robert Eagle elicited that Robert  Hill was from Sumrall, Mississippi, near Hattiesburg, and that in Hollandale he worked with guitarist Will Hadley. Paul Oliver noted that his harmonica playing was reminiscent of Jazz Gillum.

In late 1930, Little Brother Montgomery made his debut backing Minnie Hicks and on two songs, Irene Scruggs on four and recorded “No Special Rider blues” and "Vicksburg Blues" for Paramount. He cut four more sides for Bluebird in 1935. His next recording opportunity was in October 1936 in New Orleans where he waxed a remarkable eighteen  song session. As Chris Smith writes he was "adept at blues, jazz, stride, boogie and pop which he synthesized into a personal style that ranged easily from the bopping earthiness of "Frisco Hi-Ball" to the pearl-stringing elegance of "Shreveport Farewell." His high voice and bleating vibrato are unmistakable, especially on his signature piece, "Vicksburg Blues", a polyrhythmic showcase for his acute but never pedantic timing. It's also an example of Brother's poetry of geography; many of his songs, and even the titles of his instrumentals, are rich evocations of places he knew and the railroads that carried him between them."

Nothing is known of fifteen year-old Annie Turner who cut four sides (two unissued) at this session backed by Little Brother on piano and Walter Vincson on guitar. As Chris Smith wrote: "…Turner projects a smoldering sensuality, triumphing over her low volume dicey pitch with help from Montgomery and Vincson's wonderfully attentive accompaniment."

Sonny Boy Nelson: Low Down 78

Working in various configurations, Walter Vincson and Lonnie, Bo, and Sam Chatmon performed and recorded as the Mississippi Sheiks, a name inspired by a popular 1921 Rudolph Valentino film, The Sheik. A propulsive fiddler, Lonnie managed the band, while Bo, a strong, confident singer and gifted guitarist, became its biggest star. Bo made his recording debut in 1928, backing Alec Johnson. Carter soon was recording as a solo artist and became one of the dominant blues recording acts of the 1930's, recording over 100 sides. He also played with and managed the family group, the Mississippi Sheiks, and several other acts in the area. Bo Carter specialized in double entendre songs, recording dozens of risqué songs like "Banana in Your Fruit Basket," "Pin in Your Cushion", "Your Biscuits Are Big Enough for Me", "The Ins And Outs Of My Girl", the latter two featured today. Carter's brothers, Lonnie and Sam, recorded as the Chatman Brothers, cutting twelve sides at this same session.

Walter Vinson rarely worked as a solo act, seemingly much more at home in duets and trios; towards that end, during the 1920's he worked with Charlie McCoy, Rubin Lacy and Son Spand before forming the Mississippi Sheiks. He cut two songs at this 1936 sessions in the company of pianist Harry Chatman. The year before pianist Harry Chatman cut ten songs under his won name across three sessions, two in New Orleans and a final one in Jackson, Mississippi.

Johnny YoungMy Baby Walked Out On Me Down Home Blues Classics: Chicago
Johnny YoungWorried Man BluesDown Home Blues Classics: Chicago
Johnny YoungMoney Taking WomanDown Home Blues Classics: Chicago
Johnny YoungLet Me Ride Your MuleGonna Pitch a Boogie Woogie
Snooky Pryor Judgment DayVee-Jay: The Definitive Collection
Snooky Pryor Someone To Love MeBlues Masters Vol. 6
Johnny YoungWhy Did You Break My HeartI Blueskvarter Vol. 1
Johnny YoungTired Of You SmilingModern Chicago Blues
Johnny YoungGreen Door BluesBlues Scene USA Vol. 3
Johnny YoungHear That Whistle BlowRamblin' On My Mind
Robert Nighthawk Lula Mae Blue Southside Chicago
Johnny YoungOne More TimeBlue Southside Chicago
Johnny YoungMoaning And Groaning Johnny Young & His Chicago Blues Band
Johnny YoungWild, Wild WomanJohnny Young & His Chicago Blues Band
Johnny YoungStealin' Johnny Young & His Chicago Blues Band
Otis SpannSarah Street Otis Spann's Chicago Blues
Carl MartinState Street Pimp No. 1Crow Jane Blues
Johnny YoungThe Sun Is Shining And This Is Maxwell Street
Johnny YoungKid Man Blues Chicago The Blues Today
Johnny YoungI'm Doing All RightJohnny Young & Big Walter: Chicago Blues
Johnny YoungRing Around My HeartJohnny Young & Big Walter: Chicago Blues
Johnny YoungStockyard BluesJohnny Young & Big Walter: Chicago Blues
Robert NighthawkBlues Before SunriseModern Chicago Blues
Robert NighthawkI'm Getting TiredMasters Of Modern Blues Vol. 4
Johnny Young Meet Me In The BottomJohnny Young & Friends
John Lee GrandersonWatch Out GirlHard Luck John
The Chicago String BandRailroad BluesThe Chicago String Band
Johnny Young Mandolin RockMandolin Blues
Johnny Young Prison boundFat Mandolin
Johnny Young Deal The Cards I Can't Keep My Foot From Jumping
Johnny Young I Know She's Kinda Slick I Can't Keep My Foot From Jumping
Johnny Young I Got To Find My BabyI Can't Keep My Foot From Jumping

Show Notes:

While there are a few modern day blues mandolin revivalists, the instrument has largely consigned to the dustbin of history. Although little-heard on commercial recordings after the 1940's, the mandolin played an important role in blues and early rural black music. The mandolin can be heard on numerous recordings of the 1920’s and 1930’s particularly on several black string band and jug band recordings. Johnny Young was the most famous of the post-war mandolin players who after waxing a couple of exciting 78's for Ora Nelle and Planet/Old Swing-Master circa 1947-48 didn't resurface on record for fifteen years. Thankfully the 1960's and 70's were a different story with Young recording for Testament, Arhoolie Vanguard, Spivey, Blue Horizon, Blues On Blues, Bluesway as well as scattered sides on anthologies and backing artists like Robert Nighthawk, Carl Martin, Big john Wrencher, Otis Spann and others. Into the 70's he cut fine records for Blue Horizon and Bluesway before his passing in 1974. Young played traditional Chicago blues, rooted in the 40's and early 50's, and didn't share much in common with more modern upstarts like Otis Rush, Buddy Guy and Magic Sam. He also had one foot in his home state of Mississippi, his music still tied to the southern blues style of the 1920's and 30's and the vibrant string band tradition. Young was born in Vicksburg Mississippi in 1917 and spent most of his childhood living near Clarksdale, Mississippi. His mother was an accomplished musician and taught him harmonica, while his uncle Anthony Williams introduced him to guitar and mandolin. He remained in this area until he turned twenty-three, when he settled in Chicago. By 1943 he was often found performing at the Plantation Club at 31st and Giles, sharing the stage with other Mississippians like Muddy Waters and John Lee "Sonny Boy" Williamson. Young's popularity really blossomed in the Maxwell Street scene, where he often played with John Brim, Snooky Pryor, Big Walter Horton, John Lee Granderson, and Floyd and Moody Jones.

We open the program with Young's earliest recordings: in 1947 for Ora Nelle he cut "Money Taking Woman" b/w "Worried Man Blues" with Johnny Williams and "My Baby Walked Out" b/w "Let Me Ride Your Mule" in 1948 for Old Swingmaster with Snooky Pryor. Young didn't surface on record again until 1956 where he played guitar behind Snooky's "Someone To Love Me b/w Judgement Day" for Vee-Jay. From this same session are four unissued sides also with Young on guitar.

Starting in 1964 Young started recording prolifically for several labels a steady pace he kept up until his death in 1974. Pete welding, who ran Testament Records, recorded Young prolifically during this period and wrote the following about him: "Another artist who served as talent scout was Johnny Young, a fine, vastly underrated singer-guitarist-mandolinist who, like Big Joe, I recorded fairly extensively over the years both as featured performer and as accompanist to others. I issued the first of the many Young recordings I made on the compilation album Modern Chicago BluesJohnny Young and Friends…presents this fine traditional blues artist in the entirety of his multi-faceted talent, as singer, guitarist and mandolinist in settings that range from solo performances to small-amplified ensembles. It's one of the albums I'm proudest of doing, and one that still gives me great listening pleasure…"

Young can be heard on several Testament anthologies including Modern Chicago Blues, Can't Keep From Crying, Mandolin Blues plus the above mentioned Johnny Young & His Friends and featured on the Testament albums of Carl Martin, John lee Granderson, Otis Spann, J.B. Hutto, Robert Nighthawk and as a member of The Chicago String Band. It's Johnny Young we owe thanks for the "rediscovery" of Carl Martin. In 1966, Pete Welding with the help of Johnny Young, recorded Martin resulting in the terrific Crow Jane with Young playing accompaniment. The Chicago String Band was a studio group put together by Welding to emulate the old time string band sound. The group cut one self-titled album featuring Big John Wrencher, hca,voc; John Lee Granderson, voc, g; Carl Martin, voc, vl, mand; Johnny Young, voc, mand; Bill Foster, g.  Some tracks that Welding cut of Young appear on non-Testament albums including cuts that appear on Storyville's Blues Scene USA Vol. 3 & 4 (one of today's cuts, "Green Door Blues, comes from vol. 3), another track on today's program, "Hear That Whistle Blow", comes from the collection Ramblin' On My Mind released on Milestone.

Read Liner Notes

There were some interesting recordings Young made in 1964 that we spotlight today. In 1964 Olle Helander and Lars Westman of Swedish Radio were on a trip to the US to document blues and jazz in Chicago, Memphis, New Orleans and San Francisco. They reached Chicago May 23rd and recorded Johnny Young accompanied by Slim Willis, Otis Spann and Robert Whitehead. These first surface sometime in the 60's on the Python album Southside Chicago. All these recordings have subsequently been issued on CD as I Blueskvarter Chicago 1964 Vols. 1-3. Young also recorded for Willie Dixon that year to interest UK promoters with touring lesser-known Chicago artists. These sides were issued on UK Decca in 1966 and issued on the album Blues Southside Chicago. Young recorded two songs and backed Robert Nighthawk on two of his numbers. Unfortunately this album has yet to bee issued on CD. Another song, "The Sun Is Shining" comes from And This Is Free a documentary which was filmed over the course of sixteen Sundays on Chicago's Maxwell Street in 1964. The Maxwell Street open air market was a seven- to ten-block area in Chicago that from the 1920s to the middle 1960's played host to various blues musicians — both professional and amateur — who performed right on the street for tips from passerbys.

In early 1966, blues history was made with the issuance of a three-volume set of new recordings produced by blues historian Samuel Charters titled Chicago: The Blues Today!. Every artist on the three volumes had recorded before but these recordings were largely their introduction to a newer,and predominately white, album-oriented audience. The series accurately portrayed a vast cross section of the Chicago blues scene as one could hear it on any given night in the mid-'60s.  Six sides appear on vol. 3 by Johnny Young's South Side Blues Band.

Among Young's finest recordings during the 60's were two sessions done for Arhoolie. 1966 saw the release of Johnny Young And His Chicago Blues Band featuring Otis Spann, p; James Cotton, hca; Jimmy Lee Morris, b; S.P. Leary, dr. 1968 saw the release of Johnny Young & Big Walter: Chicago Blues featuring Walter Horton, hca; Lafayette Leake, p; Jimmy Dawkins, lead g; Ernest Gatewood, b; Lester Dorsie, dr. All of the Arhoolie material has been collected on the Japanese P-Vine label's Johnny Young And His Chicago Blues Band.

Between 1969 and 1973 Young recorded prolifically: Spivey (The Everlasting Blues vs. Otis Spann), a solid album for Blue Horizon (first issued on LP as Blues Masters Vol. 9, then as Fat Mandolin and finally on CD as The Complete Blue Horizon Session), 1971's Johnny Young Sings the Blues with his Gut-Bucket Mandolin on Blues on Blues (the album obviously had pressing problems which caused its withdrawal soon after release), appeared on the Bob Riedy album Lake Michigan Ain't No River and finally 1973's I Can't Keep My Foot From Jumping for Bluesway. Mike Vernon's assessment of the Blue Horizon session is right on the mark: "What you will be listening to is tough, straight ahead, no messin' Chicago blues, echoing the great 40's era, as exemplified in the work of Big Maceo Merriweather and John Lee Williamson." Young plays mandolin on the bulk of the cuts aided by members of Muddy Waters' band: Otis Spann, Sammy Lawhorn, Paul Oscher and S.P. Leary. At one time or another, every seminal Chicago blues artist who was active during the late 1960's to the early 1980's was either a member of Bob Riedy's band or was backed by his band at one time or another. The band cut two albums for Rounder in the early 70's. The general consensus ranks Young's Arhoolie recordings among his best but for my money his Bluesway album, I Can't Keep My Foot From Jumping, is one of his finest and one that gets unjustly ignored. Of course it doesn't help that the album has been long out of print and that the Bluesway label doesn't have the best reputation. Young's brawny, rippling mandolin playing is better recorded then the Blue Horizon, much more up front in the mix, and there's a crackling energy lacking in the earlier session. The band locks into a rock solid groove behind their leader: Louis Myers, Bill Warren and Richard Evans. The pianist is uncredited but may be Bob Reidy.


Tom DicksonLabor BluesBlues Images Vol. 8
Tom DicksonDeath Bell BluesMemphis Masters: Early American Blues Classics 1927-34
Whispering SmithOn The Dark Road CryingLouisiana Blues
Henry GrayLucky Lucky ManLouisiana Blues
Big Joe Turner Hear Comes Your IcemanBig Joe Turner Rides Again
Big Joe Turner Roll 'Em PeteBoss Of The Blues
Bruce UpshawI Wanna Love YouGeorgia Blues
Green PaschalTrouble Brought Me DownGeorgia Blues
Cliff ScottLong Wavy Hair Georgia Blues
Memphis Slim I See My Great MistakeBluebird Recordings 1940-1941
Little Johnnie JonesI Believe I'll Give It Up Live in Chicago with Billy Boy Arnold
Robert Nighthawk Back Water Blues35 Years of Stony Plain
Robert Nighthawk I'm Gonna Murder My Baby35 Years of Stony Plain
Clifford GibsonKeep Your Windows PinnedClifford Gibson 1929-1931
Charlie JordanDollar Bill BluesTimes Ain't Like They Used to Be Vol. 1
Robert HenrySomething's Wrong With My Little MachineDown Home Blue Classics 1943-1953
Washboard WillieWashboard BluesDetroit Blues Rarities Vol. 3: Blues Screamers & Gospel Moaners
Bobo JenkinsHere I Am A Fool In Love AgainHere I Am A Fool In Love Again
Eddie BurnsOrange DriverTreat Me Like I Treat You
Brooks Berry & Scrapper Blackwell Cold Blooded MurderMy Heart Struck Sorrow
Brooks Berry & Scrapper Blackwell Sweetest Apple On The TreeMy Heart Struck Sorrow
Tiny TopsyMiss You SoJust A Little Bit: Federal's Queens of New Breed R&B
Lula Reed Baby BabyJust A Little Bit: Federal's Queens of New Breed R&B
Little Miss JessieMy Baby Has GoneDown On Broadway And Main
Lucille HegaminArkansas BluesSongs We Taught Your Mother
Oscar 'Papa' Celestin and Sam MorganShort Dress GalOscar 'Papa' Celestin and Sam Morgan - 1925-1928
Harlem HamfatsOh RedBack To The Crossroads
Skip JamesSpecial Rider BluesTimes Ain't Like They Used to Be Vol. 4
Charlie PattonMean Black Cat BluesPrimeval Blues, Rags, and Gospel Songs
Tom BellI Can't Eagle Rock, Lord I Can Ball the JackI Can Eagle Rock
Kid WestKid West BluesI Can Eagle Rock
Gil Scott-HeronThe Get Out Of The Ghetto BluesThe Revolution Will Not Be Televised

Show Notes:

A varied show on tap today including twin spins by obscure Memphis bluesman Tom Dickson, prime 50's sides by Big joe Turner, a pair of previously unissued sides by Robert Nighthawk and two selections by Brooks Berry & Scrapper Blackwell from a long out of print LP. In addition we feature tracks from the Arhoolie album Louisiana Blues, a trio of cuts recorde by George Mitchell from the album Georgia Blues, a pair of John Lomax field recordings plus a set of tough blues ladies and a set of 50's and 60's blues from Detroit.

From The Blues of Brooks Berry and Scrapper Blackwell: My Heart Struck Sorrow (Bluesville, 1963) we feature two tracks. This album is long out of print and tough to come by and I want to thank Alan for making me a copy of this one. Berry's recorded legacy consists of this album whose recordings stem from sessions done in 1959 and 1961 and four live tracks recorded with Blackwell in 1959. As Art Rosenbaum, who recorded this album, wrote in the notes: "Brooks met Scrapper shortly after she moved to Indianapolis and thus began a long though at times stormy friendship that was to end suddenly some fifteen months after the last of the present recordings were made. On October 6, 1962. Scrapper was shot to death in a back alley near his home. Brooks has been, during the four years I have known her, reluctant to sing blues without her friend's sensitive guitar or piano playing behind her; and she will sing less and less now that he is gone."

During a trip to Toronto in 1965 Robert Nighthawk recorded five songs in a small Toronto studio. One of these sides, "Kansas City", was first issued in 2006 on Canada's Stony Plain label on 30 Years of Stony Plain. Now Stony Plain has issued 35 Years of Stony Plain with four more sides from this session. These sides were previously unknown an do not appear in blues discographies. Richard Flohil, one of the folks responsible for bringing Nighthawk to Canada, shared these recollections: "Beverly Lewis and I had brought Robert to Toronto to play at a now-vanished Toronto club called The First Floor Club. It was in the basement of a house, and we had already brought Sleepy John Estes with Yank Rachell and Hammie Nixon, and the Muddy Waters Band, to the venue. …Beverly paid for the band to go into a small four-track studio in Toronto owned by a chap called Art Snider. It was a very small, very ill-equipped studio – but the place where Gordon Lightfoot made his first records. We cut half a dozen sides, with little idea of how we would use them." From those recordings we spin "I'm Gonna Murder My Baby" which Nighthawk previously recorded in 1964 for the Maxwell Street documentary And This Is Free while "Back Water Blues" is the old Bessie Smith number, one that Nighthawk never recorded before.

From Big Turner we highlight two great Atlantic albums; Boss Of The Blues cut in 1956 and Big Joe Turner Rides Again cut in 1959. Boss Of The Blues matched Turner for one of the last times with his long time pianist Pete Johnson and also includes a variety of top swing players, several alumni from Count Basie's band: trumpeter Joe Newman, trombonist Lawrence Brown, altoist Pete Brown, tenor saxophonist Frank Wess, guitarist Freddie Green, bassist Walter Page, and drummer Cliff Leeman. From that album we hear the quintessential big Joe number, "Roll 'Em Pete" a song the duo first recorded back in in 1939 for John Hammond's Spirituals To Swing concert at Carnegie Hall. Big Joe Turner Rides Again is another great date featuring key sidemen like the great tenor Coleman Hawkins and trombonist Vic Dickenson. From this album we showcase the lovely "Hear Comes Your Iceman."

Read Liner Notes

We hear some excellent field recordings today from George Mitchell and John Lomax. From the album Georgia Blues on Rounder we spotlight a trio of songs recorded in 1967 by Mitchell. As Mitchell writes: "In 1967, I traveled a thousand miles-from Minnesota to Mississippi-to record blues in the Delta region. The following year I moved to Columbus, Georgia, a city of 175,000 on the Alabama line. I had lived there over a year before my wife Cathy and I finally decided to spend a Sunday afternoon searching for blues singers in the surrounding small towns. We did not really\y expect to fins any blues singers that day. But we did, and we spent our spare time for the next eight months searching for bluesman all over the Lower Chattaoochee Valley, the impoverished southwest section of Georgia. We never visited a town were we were not led to at least one blues musician." From the album I Can Eagle Rock: Jook Joint Blues Library of Congress Recordings 1940-1941 we ply excellent tracks by Tom Bell and Kid West. These recordings were the last made by Lomax for the library of Congress. As John Cowley write in the notes: "Alabama has been ill served in the investigation of regional blues traditions. Recordings made for the Lomaxes by Tom Bell in 1940 are, therefore, doubly important.  …As the titles to his performances indicate, Tom was an experienced dance musician, whose repertoire also included blues and ballad-like songs…" In Shreveport Lomax encountered Kid West, Oscar "Buddy" Woods and Joe Harris. Woods was the only one who had recorded commercially having made some great records in the 30's in variety of settings.

Also heard today are some top notch woman blues singers including Tiny Topsy, Lula Reed, Little Miss Jessie and Lucille Hegamin. The Tiny Topsy and Lula Reed sides come from the recent Ace CD Just A Little Bit: Federal's Queens of New Breed R&B. Tiny Topsy died at the young age of 34. Her entire output consisted of just seven singles: five on Federal between 1957 and 1959, one on Chess subsidiary Argo in 1961 and the final release, a year before her untimely death in 1963. Throughout her career, Lula was backed almost exclusively by the band of pianist Sonny Thompson, who eventually became her husband. Unlike Topsy, Ohio-born Lula’s career is better documented on CD reissues, her earlier sides for King Records having featured on Ace’s I'll Drown In My Tears. After departing King in 1956, she and Sonny spent the later part of the 1950's in recording limbo, apart from a short stint at Chess in 1958 where Lula featured on three unsuccessful Argo releases. Her recording career reignited when she returned to King in 1961 where she did several notable duest with Freddie King.

Stacy Johnson, Benny Sharpe, Little Miss Jesse

Little Miss Jesse (Jesse Smith) started in gospel and moved to R&B, making a name for herself on the St. Louis scene. Jesse worked with several bands and became an Ikette in the Ike and Tina Turner Revue in 1962. She left in 1966 to form the Mirettes and in the 70's was a member of Dr. John's backing vocal group. The storming gospel soaked "My Baby Has Gone" is unfortunately the only number cut under her own name.

Lucille Hegamin was the second person to make a Blues record after the initial success of Mamie Smith's breakthrough recordings in 1920. Hegamin's first record was "Jazz Me Blues" and "Everybody's Blues" on the Arto label. Lucille's next record came out a few months after her first record and was "Arkansas Blues" and "I'll Be Good But I'll Be Lonesome". "Arkansas Blues" was one of the most popular records of 1921. It was such a hit that Mamie Smith recorded a cover version of Hegamin's hit that same year and the Mound City Blue Blowers would also have a hit with it in 1924. In all, Lucille Hegamin recorded 68 selections between1920-26, two songs in 1932 and appeared on part of the1961 Bluesville album Songs We Taught Your Mother. From that album we hear her fine remake of "Arkansas Blues."

As always we play a number of fine pre-war blues including two sides by the utterly obscure Tom Dickson. Dickson waxed six sides in Memphis in 1928, two were unissued. Virtually nothing is known about Tom Dickson, apart from a remembrance by Mississippi’s Joe Callicott, who said he played "…around Memphis." We also feature exceptional  songs by Clifford Gibson, Charlie Jordan, Skip James and Charlie Patton. I'm always looking for the best sounding versions when I'm preparing for the show and hear we have the best sounding versions I've heard of Skip's "Special Rider Blues" taken form Yazoo's Times Ain't Like They Used To Be Vol. 4 and Patton's "Mean Black Cat" taken from Yazoo's Charlie Patton: Primeval Blues, Rags, and Gospel Songs.

Featured today are a batch of fine Detroit bluesmen: Robert Henry, Washboard Willie, Eddie Burns and Bobo Jenkins. African-Americans began arriving in drove in Detroit by the 1920?s, most settling in an area called Black Bottom, later named Paradise Valley. From the turn of the century until its demise by urban renewal in the early 1960?s, Hastings Street remained the center of business for Detroit’s east side community, made up largely of Jewish entrepreneurs and small black business owners. Lined with two-story family-owned shops and corner taverns, Hastings teemed by day with shoppers; at night it became transformed, into, what John Lee Hooker later described, as a “rough wide-open street.” Burns enjoyed a modestly successful musical career with a dozen records to his credit and a decade of weekend club gigs often with John Lee Hooker who waxed some of his best performances with Burn’s harmonica in support. It wasn’t until Washboard Willie AKA William Hensley was 31 years old that he decided to buy a washboard and begin to make music on it. In 1948 he moved north to Detroit and wasn’t until 1952, that he and a friend were out one night looking for John Lee Hooker, when they came upon Eddie Burns and his little group, playing at the Harlem Inn. After hearing the drummer playing out of time, Willie got his washboard from the car, and began playing along with the band. By the second song, the bar owner offered Hensley a job playing the washboard for the weekend. The band played there for three years. In 1956, he and Calvin Frazier recorded for Joe Von Battle. He continued to record for Von Battle from 1957 to 1962. In 1973, he toured with the American Blues Legends ’73 Tour, traveling all over Europe. He died on August 24, 1991, at the age of 82, in Detroit. In 1954 Jenkins, with the help of John Lee Hooker recorded "Democrat Blues"  for Chess Records. He recorded two more singles for the Boxer label in Chicago and Fortune Records in Detroit. he eventually formed his own label where he several albums including the Here I Am A Fool In Love Again, of which we play the title track.

We wrap up the show today with a track by Gil Scott-Heron who passed on May 27. Although he called himself a "bluesologist" he wasn't a blues artists in the traditional sense yet I remained a long time fan of his music. I was probably a senior in High School when I heard "Winter In America" on the radio. The song made a deep impression and I ran out the next and picked up a couple of his albums. His records, at least through the 70's and 80's, were consistently good and his songs always got me thinking. It's sad hat at the end of his life he fell into the very traps he sang about so eloquently in songs like "The Bottle" and "Home Is Where The Hatred Is." Still, he spoke truth to power and he did it with brains and a poetic touch. You'll be missed Gil.