Entries tagged with “Jesse Thomas”.


ARTISTSONGALBUM
Jimmy And Mama Yancey Monkey Woman Blues Chicago Blues Piano Vol. 1
Otis Spann It Must Have Been The Devil Genesis: Beginnings Of Rock Vol. 3
Al Winter Boogie 88 Hollywood Boogie: Obscure Piano Blues & Boogie Woogie From Los Angeles
Mable Hillery Lonesome Road It's So Hard To Be A Nigger
Mable Hillery Mr. President It's So Hard To Be A Nigger
Jimmy WitherspoonBig Family Blues 1950s R&B From Dolphin's Vol. 2; Toast Of The Coast
Tony AllenYou're A Mean And Evil Woman 1950s R&B From Dolphin's Vol. 1; On With The Jive
Lucille Bogan and Papa Charlie Jackson Jim Tampa Blues Papa Charlie Done Sung That Song
Laura DukesBricks In My PillowTennessee Blues Vol. 1
Elmore James Strange Angels Something Inside Of Me
Wild Jimmy Spruill Hard GrindScratchin': Wild Jimmy Spruill Story
Guitar Gable Long Way from HomeRhythm 'n' Bluesin' By The Bayou: Mad Dogs, Sweet Daddies & Pretty Babies
Pee Wee CraytonRockin the Blues Texas Blues Jumpin' In Los Angeles: The Modern Music Sessions 1948-51
John Lee Hooker I Don't Be Welcome HereThe Complete1948-51 Vol. 3
Blind Joe Hill Highway 13 First Chance
Jimmy Reed I'm Just Trying To Cop A Plea Soulin'
Tampa Red I Still Got California On My MindThe Bluebird Recordings 1934-1936
Lane HardinCalifornia Desert Blues Blues Images Vol. 9
Jesse Thomas Gonna Move to California Jesse Thomas 1948-1958
Lawyer Houston Out In CaliforniaLightning Hopkins: Lightning Special Vol. 2
Howlin' WolfCalifornia BoogieSmokestack Lightning: The Complete Chess Masters
Johnny WoodsSo Many Cold MorningsSo Many Cold Mornings
John Tinsley Cotton Picking BluesCountry Blues Roots Revisted
Walter Davis Strange Land BluesWalter Davis 1930-1932
Roy HawkinsStrange LandBad Luck Is Falling
Roger (Burn Down) GarnettLighthouse BluesThe Frog Blues And Jazz Annual No. 1
Dorothy Everetts Macon Blues The Frog Blues And Jazz Annual No. 1
Irene Wiley Bo Hog BluesThe Frog Blues And Jazz Annual No. 1
Jimmy RushingSomebody's Spoiling These WomenBlues & Gospel Kings Vol. 4

Show Notes:

ctf10024 (1)
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A wide ranging mix show today  including songs a pair of sides by singer Mabel Hillery, sets of piano blues, some heavy duty guitar slingers, a pair of sets revolving around specific lyrical themes, music from the vaults of King Records and west coast record man John Dolphin and a batch of outstanding early pre-war blues sides.

Shortly after the death of folklorist Tary Owens on September 21, 2003, Brad Buchholz, wrote that, “Tary Owens devoted most of his life to music, though only rarely to his own. The greater mission, to Owens, was to champion the music of forgotten or unsung Texas bluesmen—to put their songs on records, to place them on a stage, to encourage a larger public to celebrate their artistry.” Owens operated the Catfish and Spindletop labels issuing some fine recordings of neglected Texas artists. We spotlight two tracks from Texas Piano Professors by little recorded piano men Dr. Hepcat, Grey Ghost and Erbie Bowser. I want to thank Gerrit Robs for making this album available to me.

We spin a trio of tracks from the Frog Blues And Jazz Annual No. 1, which I recently picked up along with the second and third issues. The magazine does a great job filling the hole left by the late lamented 78 Quarterly. The Annuals are something between a magazine and a softbound book, roughly 8.5 inches by 11.75 inches with 178 pages. They are edited (and  contributed to) by Paul Swinton, owner of Great Britain’s Frog Records, one of the  premier prewar jazz and jazz/blues reissue record companies. Each Annual comes with a companion CD featuring 26 cuts that reflect the articles in the Annual.  Most of the blues tracks have appeared on other collections, but Roger Garnett's marvelous "Lighthouse Blues" (recorded for the Library of Congress in 1939) and Irene Wiley's fantastic "Bo Hog Blues" (with a probable late 1940's recording date) have not been issued before. We also spin Dorothy Everetts terrific "Macon Blues" from her lone 1928 78 record.

A member of The Georgia Sea Island Singers (she joined in 1961), Mable Hillery was less known than leader, Big John Davis or Bessie Jones, who also had her own performing career. Between 1961 and 1965 she toured the college circuit of campuses, coffee houses, church basements, and festivals, from Berkeley to Philadelphia, from the Ash Grove in Los Angeles to the Café à Go-Go in New York City. Hillery was very active in civil rights issues during the 60's. In 1968, after touring in England, where she did TV and concert dates, Hillery made a her only album for the record label Xtra, It's So Hard To Be A Nigger, which has never been issued on CD. This is a (The Frog Blues And Jazz Annual No. 1)wonderful record and Hillery was a tremendously expressive singer. The acapella title track sounds like a lost field recording by the Lomax's or Lawrence Gellert. A few other sides by her appear on various anthologies. She died at the age of 46 in 1976. 

We spin several songs with lyrical themes including several revolving around "California" and several using the title "Strange Land." In 1936 Robert Johnson famously sang the lines "But I'm cryin' hey baby, Honey don't you want to go/Back to the land of California, to my sweet home Chicago." This line always seemed a bit confusing too me but I think many blues singers viewed California as an idyllic, almost mystical place far from the Jim Crow south. From 1934 we spin Tampa Red's jaunty "I Still Got California On My Mind", Lane Hardin's "California Desert Blues" ("When I reach old Los Angeles, Californy, you oughta heard me jump and shout"),  Jesse Thomas' "Gonna Move to California", Howlin' Wolf's "California Boogie" and "Out In California" by Lawyer Houston:

Well I'm going out on Central
Going to get me a room at the hotel Dunbar
And then I'm going out to Hollywood to become a movie star

"Way out in California, that's where I long to be" sings Walter Davis in "Strange Land Blues." Roy Hawkins cut the doomy "Strange Land" in 1948 and updated it 1961.

We spin three tracks from the series Blues & Gospel Kings which spotlight early blues and gospel from King records. There are four volumes in the series spanning the years 1945 through 1952. Founded by Syd Nathan in 1943, King Records was one of the most influential independent labels of the 1940s and 1950s. By the end of the latter decade, it had become the nation's sixth largest record company. The label originally specialized in country music and." King advertised, "If it's a King, It's a Hillbilly – If it's a Hillbilly, it's a King." The company also had a "race records" label, Queen Records (which was melded into the King label within a year or two) and most notably (starting in 1950) Federal Records which launched the singing career of James Brown. In the 1950s, this side of the business outpaced the hillbilly recordings.

We also feature tracks from west coast record man John Dolphin and King Records. The legendary John Dolphin, also known as Lovin’ John, was one of the first and most well respected, black business man who made his way in the music business of Los Angeles in the 1940s and 50s. Dolphin first entered the music business as a retailer where in 1948, when he opened Dolphin’s of Hollywood, a record store on Vernon Avenue that would stay open 24 hours a day.The store featured deejays broadcasting on the local station of KRKD, in front of the huge, glass window. In 1950, John Dolphin mounted his own label, Recorded In Hollywood, eventually selling the label to Decca. Dolphin launched follow-up labels including Lucky, Money and Cash. In 1958 Dolphin was shot and killed by a disgruntled songwriter. The Ace label has issued two volumes of recordings made by Dolphin: On With The Jive! 1950s R&B From Dolphin's Of Hollywood Vol. 1 and Toast Of The Coast: 1950s R&B From Dolphin's Of Hollywood Vol. 2.

Mabel Hillery
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We play a set of guitar heavy hitters today, most from some recent reissues. The track by Wild Jimmy Spruill comes from a great 2-CD set, Scratchin’: The Wild Jimmy Spruill Story. After arriving in New York in 1955 Spruill went on to play guitar on a staggering number of records notably for Bobby and Danny Robinson’s group of labels, including Fire, Fury, Enjoy, Everlast and Vim. He also cut some terrific sides under his own name. Our Pee wee Crayton cut comes from Texas Blues Jumpin' In Los Angeles: The Modern Music Sessions 1948-51, the third CD on the Ace label of Crayton's Modern sides. "Long Way From Home" by Guitar Gable comes from another recent Ace reissue, Rhythm 'n' Bluesin' By The Bayou: Mad Dogs, Sweet Daddies & Pretty Babies the tenth volume in the “By The Bayou” series, pulling sides from the  vaults of J.D. Miller’s Crowley studio.

 

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ARTISTSONGALBUM
Little Son Willis Nothing But The Blues Down Home Blues Classics: California & The West Coast 1948-1954
Alex Moore Neglected Woman Whistling Alex Moore 1929-51
Dr. Hepcat Hattie Green Houston Might Be Heaven: Rockin' R&B In Texas 1947-1951
Wright Holmes Good Road BluesDown Behind The Rise 1947-1953
Jesse ThomasDouble Due Love You Down Behind The Rise 1947-1953
Junior BrooksLone Town Blues Modern Downhome Blues Sessions Vol. 1
Jimmy DeBery Before LongDeep South Blues Piano 1935-1937
Manny NicholsNo One To Love MeDown Home Blues Classics: Texas 1946-1954
Blind Willie McTellEast St. Louis Blind Willie McTell & Curley Weaver: The Post War Years
Johnny Beck You Gotta Lay Down Mama Down Home Blues Classics: Texas 1946-1954
Dennis McMillon Paper Wooden Daddy New York City Blues 1940-1950
Schoolboy Cleve She's GoneDown Home Blues Classics Vol.5: Memphis & The South 1949-1954
Pee Wee Hughes Country Boy Jook Joint Blues
Papa Lightfoot Wine, Whiskey & Women Blues Harmonica Wizards
Goldrush All My Money GoneRural Blues Vol. 1 1934- 1956
Leroy Ervin Blue, Black and Evil Texas Blues ( Bill Quinn's Gold Star Recordings)
Big Charlie Bradix Numbered Days The Travelling Record Man
Pete Franklin Down Behind the Rise Down Behind The Rise 1947-1953
Walter Bradford Reward For My Baby Sun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1958
Charley BookerWalked All NightSun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1958
Frank Edwards Gotta Get Together Jook Joint Blues
Henry Hill & Doctor Ross That Ain't Right Sun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1958
Joe Hill LouisWe All Gotta Go SometimeSun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1958
John Lee Down At The Depot Rural Blues Vol. 1 1934- 1956
Dan Pickett 99 1/2 Won't Do Shake That Thing!: East Coast Blues 1935-1953
Pinetop Slim Applejack Boogie Modern Downhome Blues Sessions Vol. 4
Big Boy SpiresAbout To Lose My Mind Chicago Slickers 1948-1953
Otis HintonWalking Downhill Black Cat Trail
Frankie Lee SimsWalking With Frankie 4th & Beale And Further South
Luther HuffBulldog Blues Down Home Blues Classics Vol.5: Memphis & The South 1949-1954
Lane HardinKeep 'em Down The Modern Down Home Blues Sessions Vol. 4
Boyd Gilmore Ramblin' On My Mind The Modern Downhown Blues Sessions Vol. 1
Baby Face Turner Blue Serenade The Modern Downhown Blues Sessions Vol. 2
Willie NixLonesome BedroomThe Traveling Record Man

Show Notes:

Down Behind The Rise
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In the immediate post-war era the music was rapidly changing, R&B was on the rise and and older blues styles were falling out of fashion. Yet for awhile at least, there was still a market for rural down home blues as evidenced by the popularity of artists like Lightnin' Hopkins, John Lee Hooker and Smokey Hogg. Between 1944 and 1964, more than 600 record companies tried their hands at recording blues. Many failed or had limited success while others grew and became major players. Paul Vernon wrote that this was “the last grand hurrah of local blues recorded for, and often by, local entrepreneurs, neither folkloric nor college oriented, but music for the culture from which it grew." Today we spotlight some of my down home blues favorites spanning the years 1947 through 1957.

A good number of today's tracks come from two album series that made a big impression on me; one was on the Nighthawk label which issued a series of great anthologies in the late 70's. I discovered these a bit later at my college radio station which had the entire series. I was particularly drawn to Down Behind The Rise 1947-1953 which introduced me to Jesse Thomas, Wright Holmes and Johnny Beck, all of whom are featured today. All of these sides have since been reissued on many different collections. The other series was Kent's Anthology of Blues, a twelve volume set of albums, some spotlighting single artists, others anthologies of great down home blues. I discovered numerous great artists from that series including Willie Nix, Pinetop Slim, Charlie Bradix, Baby Face Turner, Junior Brooks, Boyd Gilmore and Charley Booker, all artists featured today. The series was resurrected in grand fashion by Ace Records over the course of six CD's with terrific notes by Jim O'Neal and loads of additional tracks.

I should also mention the Sun Records: The Blues Years 1950-1956, a nine LP box set that I picked up back in High School at Bleeker Bob's in Greenwich Village. I have played this set endlessly over the years and today spin several tracks from that box including Walter Bradford, Charley Booker, Henry Hill & Doctor Ross and Joe Hill Louis. Below is is some information on a few of today's featured performers.

Wright Holmes: Good Road BluesWright Holmes was born in Hightower, TX. on July 4, 1905. In 1930 he moved to Houston where he started playing in clubs on Dowling Street and also broadcasted on KTRH. In 1947 he made two recordings for Bill Quinn's Gold Star label but Quinn didn't issue the recordings because he thought that Holmes sounded too much like Lightnin' Hopkins who was his top selling blues artist. Later that year, another man named Abe Conley recorded four songs by him at his studio. Conley sold the masters to Miltone. Two of the songs were issued on Miltone. Miltone was later bought out by Gotham who reissued the two songs and issued one other with another song never issued.

Jesse Thomas recorded sporadically from the late 1920's through the early 1990's and despite his longevity didn't achieve much in the way of success or recognition. In 1929, at 18, Thomas cut four excellent sides for Victor.By the post-war era Thomas had developed a brilliant, highly individual style unlike anyone else. Between 1948-1958 Thomas cut sides for nine different West Coast labels. Thomas' "Double Due Love You" was a song made a big impression when I first heard it on Down Behind The Rise.

Modern Records' partner Joe Bihari had made his first field trip to the South around September 1951 following the breakdown in relations with Sam Phillips. This was after Rocket "88" by Jackie Brenston and Ike Turner ended up on Chess instead of Modern, and became a #1 R&B smash hit. Until then Phillips had been recording Modern's Memphis-area artists including B.B. King, Joe Hill Louis and Rosco Gordon. Following the split with Phillips, Bihari hit paydirt with B.B. King's "3 O'Clock Blues," thus encouraging Bihari to authorize further trips in the South. The Biharis launched a new label for these field recordings, Blues & Rhythm, in February 1952. The first major reissue of this material was in 1969 and 1970, issued as the Anthology Of The Blues 12-volume LP series on Kent. In later years Joe Bihari said: "I was a gutsy kid who wasn't afraid of anything, traveling during a period where there was immense segregation and discrimination against African Americans. Indeed, I am proud of myself for doing what I could to resist this horrific prejudice. Looking back, I think I made major contributions to this rich music that we have all over America – and all my hard work paid off as this blues music is now recognized worldwide."

As Joe Bihari remembers, it was on a trip to Atlanta in 1949 that he conducted his first on-the-road session after he just happened to hear a guitarist playing on the street there. The bluesman he discovered was Pine Top Slim. "I took him right into our distributor's office and I recorded him at the local radio station where Zeas Sears was the top jock" "Applejack Boogie b/w I'm Gonna Carry On" were released on a short-lived Modern subsidiary called Colonial in 1949. The Biharis shelved the rest of the Pine Top Slim session, and it was only when Frank Scott and Bruce Bromberg compiled the historic Kent Anthology of the Blues LP series  that the rest of the material resurfaced.

Blues From The Deep SouthFor a long time it was thought Lane Hardin's 1935 record, "California Desert Blues b/w Hard Time Blues" was the only record he ever recorded. Unknown to most collectors Hardin cut a vanity record circa 1948. The record was found by collector Steve LaVere sometime in the 1990's in Los Angeles and purchased by Tefteller and has since been reissued. In around 1950 a group of artists sent in a batch of unlabeled acetates that were discovered at Modern in 1970. These recordings have remained a focal point for intense discussion ever since. When these sides were first issued on Kent's Blues From The Deep South LP, Arkansas Johnny Todd and Leroy Simpson were invented for two sides released. It turns out that Todd is actually Lane Hardin.

Junior Brooks (nicknamed "Crippled Red") was from Pine Bluff, AR. He worked the local club scene with his fellow musicians Baby Face Turner, Elmon "Driftin' Slim" Mickle, and Sunny Blair. The Bihari brothers held two sessions in Little Rock in 1951 and '52 to record some of the local talent. Brooks made four recordings at the 1951 sessions. He died shortly afterward. Also from this session we feature tracks by Baby Face Turner and Boyd Gilmore.

Years ago, I don't remember where, I picked up a record on Arhoolie's Blues Classic series called Juke Joint Blues. There were  some great sides on that record but the one I played over and over was Dr. Hepcat's rollicking, humorous "Hattie Green", a totally unique rendition of this classic Texas blues  number. Born in Austin, Texas, January 9, 1913, as Lavada Durst he  learned to play the piano as a child and emulated the styles he heard growing up. "I was self-taught," he recalls "I used to slip across the street to the church house and one-finger that piano. From Robert Shaw (Arhoolie CD 377), Durst learned the rudiments of what is now referred to as the Texas barrelhouse piano style. He worked part time as a disc jockey from 1948 to 1963 on KVET radio in Austin. On the air, he used the call name “Dr. Hepcat,” and during his show, which featured primarily rhythm and blues and jazz, he used to jive talk to pique the interests of his listeners in making introductions to records, public service announcements, and commercials. He cut a handful of sides in 1949 and latter day sides.

Now I remember exactly where I snagged a copy of Dan Pickett: 1949 Country Blues. I was at my favorite record shop, Finyl Vinyl, on New York's Second Avenue in the Village and they had the album displayed on the wall reserved for notable new records. Most times I walked in there without a plan, just poking around and always leaving with some albums tucked under my arm. This time I had been looking for this album after reading an intriguing review in Juke Blues magazine. Dan Pickett did one recording session for the Philadelphia-based Gotham label in 1949. His real name was James Founty who was born in Pike County, Alabama on August 31, 1907. Five singles were issued by the label while the rest of the titles weren't unearthed until four decades later (with some alternate takes of some issued titles to boot). No one is certain what he did after his one and only session as far as his life. He passed away in Boaz, Alabama on August 16, 1967, a few days short of his 60th birthday.

Jess Thomas: D Double Due Love YouIn strange twist I became friends decades later with Axel Küstner who played a big part in unraveling the mystery behind Pickett. Küstner went from his home in Germany to Alabama in 1993 to see what he could dig up. He found Founty's surviving family and also the lawyer's son, who had his father"s papers, though Founty's file was missing. He obtained the only known photograph that shows Founty and some information on his life. Künster published a two page teaser about the trip in Juke Blues where he wrote: "Until the whole story is published in Juke Blues, I'll just tell you this much: [Founty was] a classic rambler in the best blues tradition…"Künster wrote that over fifteen years ago and still no full article has been written. I've been trying to gently prod him into writing the full article – maybe someday! In 2010 John Jeremiah Sullivam wrote an article on Pickett for The Oxford American that published the Pickett photo, transcribed an interview with Künster and provided a bit more information on Pickett's life.

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ARTISTSONGALBUM
Blind Lemon JeffersonOne Dime Blues The Best Of
Blind Lemon JeffersonMatchbox Blues The Best Of
Blind Lemon JeffersonRambler BluesThe Best Of
Down Home Boys (Papa Harvey Hull & Long "Cleve" Reed)Mama You Don't Know HowNever Let The Same Bee Sting You Twice
Big Joe WilliamsPeach Orchard Mama Big Joe Williams and the Stars of Mississippi Blues
Blind Willie McTellLast Dime BluesThe Best Of
Blind Lemon JeffersonSee That My Grave Is Kept CleanThe Best Of
Blind Lemon JeffersonBed Spring BluesThe Best Of
Blind Lemon JeffersonPrison Cell Blues Mean & Evil Blues
Lightnin' Hopkins Reminiscences Of Blind LemonLightnin' Hopkins [Smithsonian Folkways]
Lightnin' Hopkins One Kind FavorAll The Classics 1946-1951
Son HouseCounty Farm BluesBlues Images Vol. 4
Blind Lemon Jefferson Shuckin' Sugar BluesThe Complete Classic Sides
Blind Lemon Jefferson Corinna Blues The Best Of
Blind Lemon Jefferson Rabbit Foot Blues If It Ain't One Thing, It'Rabbit Foot Blues
Ramblin' ThomasNo Baby BluesTexas Blues: Early Masters From the Lone Star State
Blind Boy Fuller Untrue BluesBlind Boy Fuller Remastered 1935-1938
Blind Lemon Jefferson Got The Blues The Best Of
Blind Lemon Jefferson Long Lonesome Blues The Best Of
Blind Lemon Jefferson Hot Dogs The Best Of
Leadbelly Blind Lemon (Song)Leadbelly Vol. 6 1947
Leadbelly Silver City Bound Leadbelly's Last Sessions
Blind Lemon JeffersonBad Luck Blues The Complete Classic Sides
Blind Lemon JeffersonBlack Horse Blues The Best Of
Blind Lemon Jefferson That Crawlin' Baby Blues The Best Of
Hattie Hudson Doggone My Good Luck Soul Dallas Alley Drag
Thomas Shaw Jack Of Diamonds San Diego Blues Jam
Mance LipscombEasy Rider BluesCaptain, Captain: The Texas Songster
Blind Lemon JeffersonBlind Lemon's Penitentiary Blues The Complete Classic Sides
Blind Lemon JeffersonBlack Snake Moan Great Blues Guitarists: String Dazzlers
Pete HarrisBlind Lemon's SongTexas Blues: Early Masters From the Lone Star State
Rev. Emmett Dickenson The Death Of Blind LemonBlues Images Vol. 6
King Solomon Hill My Buddy, Blind Papa Lemon Blues Images Vol. 2

Show Notes:

Blind Lemon Jefferson

Today we spotlight Blind Lemon Jefferson and the enormous influence he had on his contemporaries and countless blues artist over the ensuing decades. Although he was not the first male country blues singer/guitarist to record, Blind Lemon Jefferson was the first to succeed commercially and his success influenced previously reluctant record companies to actively seek out and record male country blues players in the hope of finding a similar talent. Throughout the ’20s Lemon spearheaded a boom in ‘race’ record sales that featured male down-home blues singers and such was the appeal of his recordings that in turn they were responsible for inspiring a whole new generation of blues singers. Researcher Bruce Bastin, known for his extensive research in the Piedmont region, said of Jefferson… “…there can have been few nascent bluesmen outside Texas, let alone within the state, who had never heard his music. Among interviewed East Coast bluesmen active during Blind Lemon’s recording career, almost all recall him as one of the first bluesmen they heard on record.” Today we spotlight some of Lemon's best numbers as well as a those artists he inspired. Lemon's influence cast a long shadow among both black and white artists and today's show is in no way comprehensive but does give a snapshot of just how big Lemon's impact was.

Jefferson was born in September 1893. By 1912, he was working over a wide area of Texas, including East Dallas, Silver City, Galveston, and Waco. Jefferson was still a teenager when he moved into Dallas. The black community in Dallas were settled in an area covering approximately six blocks around Central Avenue up to Elm Street, the center of which was Deep Ellum, a bustling thoroughfare full of bars, clubs and brothels. Mance Lipscomb saw Jefferson playing there as early as 1917. Although Jefferson’s reputation was originally made as a singer of sacred songs, the percentage of blues in his repertoire greatly increased as the years progressed. In 1925 Jefferson was discovered by a Paramount recording scout and taken to Chicago to make his first records either in December 1925 or January 1926. Jefferson's first session produced "I Want To Be Like Jesus In My Heart" b/w "All I Want Is That Pure Religion" using the name Deacon L.J. Bates. It was the second session, however, that made Jefferson a star. He recorded four songs at that session: “Booster Blues” b/w “Dry Southern Blues’, came out in or around March 1926. "Got The Blues" b/w "Long Lonesome Blues" hadn't been on sale long in the spring of 1926 when Paramount asked him to record it again because of the huge demand for the record. This was unheard of for a male blues artist. Prior to Jefferson the blues had been recorded primarily by women backed by piano or bands

Blind Lemon Jefferson: Rambler Blues
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Tony Russell describes Jefferson's impact: "Jefferson offered instead blues sung by a man playing guitar – playing it, moreover, with a busyness and variety that showed up many of those pianists and bands as turgid and ordinary. The discovery that there was an audience for Jefferson's type of blues revolutionized the music business: within a few years female singers were out of favor and virtually all the trading in the 'race' market (jazz aside) was in men with guitars." Throughout 1926 there was a constant supply of new releases from Jefferson, "Black Horse Blues", "Jack O’ Diamond Blues" and "That Black Snake Moan" were among these classic numbers.

In 1927, when producer Mayo Williams moved to OKeh Records, he took Jefferson with him, and OKeh quickly recorded and released Jefferson's "Matchbox Blues" backed with "Black Snake Moan," which was to be his only OKeh recording, probably because of contractual obligations with Paramount. Jefferson's two songs released on Okeh have considerably better sound quality than on his Paramount records at the time. When he had returned to Paramount a few months later, "Matchbox Blues" had already become such a hit that Paramount re-recorded and released two new versions. In 1927, Jefferson recorded another of his now classic songs, the haunting "See That My Grave Is Kept Clean" (once again using the pseudonym Deacon L. J. Bates) along with two other uncharacteristically spiritual songs, "He Arose from the Dead" and "Where Shall I Be." Of the three, "See That My Grave Is Kept Clean" became such a big hit that it was re-recorded and re-released in 1928. Despite his success, which allowed him to maintain a chauffeur-driven Ford and a healthy bank balance, Jefferson’s lifestyle was little affected. While he spent time in Chicago, where most of his recordings were made, he continued to work as an itinerant performer in the South.

In addition to his frequent recording sessions in Chicago throughout the late '20s, Blind Lemon Jefferson still performed in Texas and traveled around the South. He played Chicago rent parties, performed at St. Louis' Booker T. Washington Theater, and even worked some with Son House collaborator Rev. Rubin Lacy while in Mississippi. In late September of 1929, Jefferson went to Paramount's studios in Richmond, IN, for a fruitful session that included two songs,"Bed Springs Blues" and "Yo Yo Blues", that were also issued on the Broadway label. Jefferson was back in Chicago in December of 1929 when, sadly, he was found dead following a particularly cold snowstorm.

Blind Lemon Jefferson: 'Lectric Chair Blues
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Jefferson died in Chicago at 10 am on December 19, 1929, of what his death certificate called "probably acute myocarditis" (Lemon's death certificate was found in 2010 and published in the Frog Blues and Jazz Annual #1). Paramount Records paid for the return of his body to Texas by train, accompanied by pianist William Ezell. Jefferson was buried at Wortham Negro Cemetery (later Wortham Black Cemetery). By 1996, the cemetery and marker were in poor condition, but a new granite headstone was erected in 1997. In 2007, the cemetery's name was changed to Blind Lemon Memorial Cemetery and his gravesite is kept clean by a cemetery committee in Wortham, Texas.

Several blues singer/guitarists like Thomas Shaw and Mance Lipscomb thought Jefferson’s style almost impossible to imitate with any degree of success. But there were a few recordings made in the pre-war period that managed to do so, notably Issiah Nettles (The Mississippi Moaner), who covered Lemon’s "Long Lonesome Blues" as "It’s Cold In China Blues". Willard ‘Ramblin’ Thomas (probably a one time associate of Jefferson) had a number of songs in the the vein of Lemon. Jesse Thomas' 1948 number, "Double Due Love You" opens with lyrics also taken from the Blind Lemon' "Long Lonesome Blues." Thomas also recorded Lemon's "Jack of Diamonds" in 1951.

We feature several artists today who either covered Lemon's songs or who's records clearly bear the mark of Lemon's influence.  The Down Home Boys recording of "Mama, You Don't Know How", from 1927, has Long Cleve Reed, Papa Harvey Hull and Sunny Wilson re-working Lemon's "Black Snake Moan". Blind Boy Fuller was influenced by Lemon. The opening lick to his intro to "Untrue Blues" comes right out of "Rabbit's Foot Blues” while "Meat Shakin' Woman", derives its melody from "Bad Luck Blues". According to Son House’s recollection of his 1930 Paramount session, producer Art Laibley had asked the musicians if anyone could do a version of the song. Charlie Patton and Willie Brown passed but House went back to his room with Louise Johnson, worked half the night adding his own words to Lemon's melody, and the next day recorded "Mississippi County Farm." The song became a mainstay of House's repertoire, and he recorded it again for Alan Lomax in 1942. Hattie Hudson's 1927 song, "Doggone My Bad Luck Soul" was an "answer song" to Lemon's "Bad Luck Blues" issued in 1926, and has the repeated tag-line "doggone my bad luck soul."

Today we spotlight several artists who knew Lemon first hand such as Lightnin' Hopkins, Leadbelly, Thomas Shaw and King Solomon Hill. Lightnin' Hopkins offered different account of when he met Blind Lemon but it seems to have been sometime in the early to mid-20's. From 1959 we hear "Reminiscences Of Blind Lemon" and "One Kind Favor, his cover of Lemon's "See That My Grave Is Kept Clean."

It was on the streets of Deep Ellum that Lemon met up with Leadbelly. Leadbelly, in later years, was understandably proud of his relationship with Lemon. They probably met up sometime after 1910, when Leadbelly and his wife Aletta moved into Dallas. Leadbelly would play guitar, mandolin or accordion behind Lemon and he remembered topically performing the number "Fare Thee Well, Titanic" (the Titanic sank on its maiden voyage in 1912) on the streets of Dallas with Jefferson and on other occasions, dancing while Lemon would play a guitar solo version of "Dallas Rag". As a team they traveled together on the railroads from town to town earning a reasonable living. In later years Leadbelly would recall how he and Lemon “was buddies” and how.. “we’d tear those guitars all to pieces”. Their partnership certainly ended by January 1918, when Leadbelly (using the alias Walter Boyd) was indicted on a charge of murder, found guilty and thereafter became a guest of the Texas penal system.

Blind Lemon Jefferson: Cannon Ball Moan
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Thomas Shaw had already been enthralled by Jefferson's early recordings of “Long Lonesome Blues” and “Matchbox Blues” when he met Jefferson on the town square of Waco in 1926 or 1927. At Blind Jefferson's urging he bought himself a guitar and learned Jefferson's “Long Lonesome Blues”. He learned many of Jefferson's songs from a combination of listening to the records and hearing him in person. Today we play his version of Lemon's classic "Jack Of Diamonds."

King Solomon Hill was closely connected to Crying Sam Collins and Blind Lemon Jefferson and their influence is evident, to some degree, in Hill's style. "My Buddy, Blind Papa Lemon"is a heartfelt tribute to someone Hill clearly admired: "Hmmm then the mailman brought a misery to my head/When I received a letter that my friend Lemon was dead." Those lines echo the opening of Lemon's “Gone Dead On You Blues”: Mmmmmm, mailman's letter brought misery to my head. Mmmmm, brought misery to my head. I got a letter this morning, my pigmeat mama was dead.” Hill ran with Lemon for about two months after he passed through Minden. Hill's widow recalled that "he sung that song a whole lot 'bout Blind Lemon. Said he loved his buddy 'some way better than anyone I know.'" On one record, “Whoope Blues” b/w Down On My Bended Knees” the subtitle on the record says “Blind Lemon's Buddy.”

In 1930 , shortly after Lemon's death, Paramount issued a double sided tribute to Lemon: “Wasn't It Sad About Lemon” by the duo Walter and Byrd was on one side while the second side was the sermon “The Death Of Blind Lemon” by Rev. Emmett Dickenson. Leadbelly recorded a number of songs about Lemon after his passing. Today we spin his "Blind Lemon (Song)" from 1947 and the marvelous "Silver City Bound" from his last session in 1948.

A Twist of Lemon by Paul Swinton  (Blues & Rhythm, No. 121)

Blind Lemon And I Had A Ball by Victoria Spivey  (Record Research 76, May 1966 p.9)

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ARTISTSONGALBUM
Jim BledsoeWorried BluesDown South Blues 1949-1961
Jim BledsoeHot Rod BoogieDown South Blues 1949-1961
Stick Horse Hammond Little GirlAlley Special
Stick Horse Hammond Alberta Down Home Blues Classics: Texas 1946-195
Eddie & Oscar Flying Crow BluesToo Late, Too Late Vol 4 1892-1937
Black Ivory King Flying Crow BluesPiano Blues: The Essential
Pete McKinley Shreveport BluesBloodstains on the Wall: Country Blues from Specialty Records
Pete McKinley Whistling BluesBloodstains on the Wall: Country Blues from Specialty Records
Lillian GlinnShreveport Blues Lillian Glinn 1927-1929
Three Fifteen & His SquaresSaturday Night On Texas AvenueRare 1930's Blues Vol. 2
Kid WestKid West BluesI Can Eagle Rock: Jook Joint Blues Library of Congress 1940-1941
Joe HarrisEast Texas BluesI Can Eagle Rock: Jook Joint Blues Library of Congress 1940-1941
Oscar "Buddy" WoodsSometimes I Get to Thinkin' I Can Eagle Rock: Jook Joint Blues Library of Congress 1940-1941
Jim BledsoeAvenue BreakdownRural Blues Vol. 1
Jim BledsoeOld River Blues Down Home Blues Classics: Memphis And The South
Jim BledsoeStormin' And Rainin' Rural Blues Vol. 3
Shreveport HomewreckersHome Wreckin' BluesTexas Blues: Early Masters From the Lone Star State
Oscar "Buddy" WoodsMuscat Hill Blues Texas Blues: Early Masters From the Lone Star State
Stick Horse HammondToo Late BabyDown Home Blues Classics: Memphis And The South
Stick Horse HammondGamblin' ManDown Home Blues Classics: Texas 1946-195
Jim Bledsoe & Pete McKinleyDon't Want Me BluesBloodstains on the Wall: Country Blues from Specialty Records
Jim Bledsoe Philippine BluesJook Joint Blues
Ramblin ThomasSo Lonesome BluesCountry Blues Bottleneck Guitar Classics
King Solomon HillThe Gone Dead TrainBlues Images Vol. 3
Jesse ThomasBlue Goose BluesTexas Blues: Early Masters From the Lone Star State
Lonnie WilliamsNew Road BluesJook Joint Blues Vol. 5
Lonnie WilliamsTears In My Jook Joint Blues Vol. 5
Stick Horse Hammond Truck 'Em On DownAlley Special
Clarence LondonGot a Letter This MorningBloodstains on the Wall: Country Blues from Specialty Records
Black AceTrifling WomanI'm The Boss Card In Your Hand
LeadbellyFannin StreetLeadbelly Vol. 1 1939-1940
Pine Bluff Pete A Women Acts FunnyBloodstains on the Wall: Country Blues from Specialty Records
Pine Bluff Pete Uncle Sam BluesBloodstains on the Wall: Country Blues from Specialty Records
Jim BledsoeSad And LonelyRural blues Vol. 3
Jim Bledsoe Dial 110 Juke Joints 3

Show Notes:

Shreveport, 1920

Shreveport, Louisiana lies in the tri-state region where Louisiana, Texas and Arkansas meet. Located in the northwest corner of Louisiana, Shreveport has had a thriving music scene for many decades. On the southwest edge of Shreveport's Central Business District is a area that has long been forgotten. Blue Goose is a enclave of a much larger neighborhood called Crosstown, which was destroyed in the 1960's for the construction of Interstate 20. The remnant of Blue Goose is the remaining portion of an area that is rich in history. Blue Goose takes its name from a speakeasy that operated during prohibition. In 1942 the structure was torn down and a one story juke joint called the Silver Slipper took its place. Then later, The Ebony club. In the pre-war era artists such as Ocar "Buddy" Woods, Leadbelly, Jesse Thomas, Ramblin Thomas and the Black Ace performed in the area. Many of the musicians ended up there because they were passing through Shreveport by rail and the area was close to the tracks and the station. During the height of the post-war era, courtesy of labels like Gotham, JOB (not the Chicago label but a  home-grown Shreveport label), Pacemaker (owned by country music star Webb Pierce), Imperial, and Specialty recorded some great blues in Shreveport in the early 1950s. Today we spotight these artists as well as a few songs who make reference to the city in song.

Country Jim Bledsoe

Jim Bledsoe was a street singer and guitarist, he recorded for PaceMaker (Webb Pierce's label) in 1949 under the name Hot Rod Happy and ended his recording career circa 1951/1952 with recordings for Specialty and Imperial under the name Country Jim. "Avenue breakdown and "Old River Blues" (the name of a lake near the city) and "Hollywood Boogie" with a reference to the black neighborhood of Shreveport's, Mooretown (which includes an artery called Hollywood) clearly shows that Bledsoe really was a resident of Shreveport and knew the city well. Bledsoe recorded some twenty sides circa 1951/1952 for Specialty, likely recorded at KWKH studios after hours. Theses sides were not released at the time, with some being issued decades later. Among the unreleased sides were “Travis Street Blues” and “Texas Street Blues” which were named after streets in downtown Shreveport and there was also some gospel sides recorded.

Stick Horse Hammond cut three 78's, six sides, for the JOB and Gotham labels in 1950. The sides Hammond cut for JOB (not the Chicago label of the same name) were issued by Ray Bartlett a former disc-jockey at Shreveport's KWKH station about and according to country artist Zeke Clements, who discovered Hammond, “they drove around for two or three days getting him drunk enough to record.” Hammond was born Nathaniel Hammond, April 1896, Dallas, Texas, and after playing around east and central Texas in the 30's before moved to Taylortown, Louisiana in the 40's. The nickname probably derives from the fact that he wore a peg-leg. He died in Shreveport in 1964 and was buried in Taylortown.

Eddie Schaffer teamed up with Oscar "Buddy" Woods and recorded one single for Victor in Memphis in 1930 billed as the "Shreveport Home Wreckers". Two years later they cut one more record in Dallas under their names. One of their numbers was "Flying Crow Blues." Several songs make reference to the Flying Crow, a train line connecting Port Arthur, Texas to Kansas City with major stops in Shreveport and Texarkana. Black Ivory King, Carl Davis & the Dallas Jamboree Jug Band, Dusky Dailey, Washboard Sam and Oscar Woods all recorded songs about the train. Today we also spin the version by Black Ivory King, perhaps the finest version of this song.

Oscar "Buddy" Woods was a Louisiana street musician known as "The Lone Wolf" and a pioneer in the style of lap steel bottleneck blues slide guitar. It is said that Woods developed his bottleneck slide approach to playing blues guitar after seeing a touring Hawaiian troupe of musical entertainers in the early 1920s. Not long after arriving in Shreveport, Woods began a long association with guitarist Ed Schaffer, and together they performed as the Shreveport Home Wreckers. Woods and Schaffer made their first two recordings as the Shreveport Home Wreckers for Victor in Memphis on May 31, 1930. Woods cut his last five selections for the Library of Congress in 1940. John Lomax wrote the following about the session: "Oscar (Buddy) Woods, Joe Harris and Kid West are all professional Negro guitarists and singers of  Texas Avenue, Shreveport…The songs I have recorded are among those they use to cajole nickels and dimes from the pockets of listeners." Woods died in 1956.

David “Pete” McKinley had two songs released in 1950 on Gotham. “Shreveport Blues” is the earliest post-war blues to mention the city. McKinley participated in the same March 12, 1952 session for Specialty that Jim Bledsoe was involved in. Several other sides were unissued until decades later. Art Rupe of Specialty Records came to Shreveport from California at the suggestion of Stan Lewis, renting out the Studios KWKH for an all-night marathon session which began when the station signed off at 2AM. In 1948, Lewis opened a record store, Stan's Record Shop, on Texas Street in Shreveport. Lewis became a one-stop operator (other record stores would buy from him) and distributor of independent records and began to write and produce R&B and rock and roll records. In 1963, Lewis founded the Jewel label and soon after the Paula and Ronn imprints.

Art Rupe remembered “Pine Bluff Pete” as a “very black man” who had been running errands during the session. Rupe said “when it was felt the other singers couldn't perform effectively any more because of alcohol , fatigue, or both, Pine Bluff Pete asked to record. He looked like he could use the recording fee, and everybody was feeling good, so we recorded him. We never actually intended to release the records, so we paid him outright, not even getting his full name.” The name “Pine Bluff Pete” was given to him by Barry Hansen who discovered the tap in the Specialty vaults. Two of the three songs he recorded credit Jim Bledsoe as the composer and he may be playing guitar on these sides.

Ramblin' Thomas spent time in both Dallas and Shreveport. His brother Jesse said “ He spend a good time in both of them. He's mostly get a room to hisself and play in the streets, in the barbershop, on a corner or even in the alley.” In Shreveport he hung out with Joe Holmes, who in 1932 recorded as 'King Solomon Hill' for Paramount. Holmes' ex-wife, Roberta Allums told researcher Gayle Dean Wardlow, “Joe had rather play with Thomas than any other singer.” In Dallas he spent time with Blind Lemon Jefferson. Thomas cut two sessions for Paramount in 1928 and a last session for Victor in 1932.

Jesse Thomas moved to Shreveport when he was fifteen. In 1927 he moved to Dallas to stay with his brother Willard. After meeting Lonnie Johnson he turned to the guitar playing house parties. Thomas recorded sporadically from the late 1920’s through the early 1990’s and despite his longevity didn’t achieve much in the way of success or recognition. In 1929, at 18, Thomas cut four excellent sides for Victor most notably, ”Blues Goose Blues” named after a Shreveport area where Thomas performed:

 I'm goin down in old Blue Goose, even if I lose
   When you go to Shreveport town
   You can find Blue Goose and they'll car' you down
   I'm goin' down in old Blue Goose, I don't care if I lose

King Solomon Hill's legacy is the six sides he cut for Paramount in 1932: "Whoopee Blues", "Down On My Bended Knee", "The Gone Dead Train", "Tell Me Baby", "My Buddy Blind Papa Lemon" and "Times Has Done Got Hard." The last two numbers were not found until 2002 by record collector John Tefteller. King was closely connected to Crying Sam Collins and Blind Lemon Jefferson and their influence are evident, to some degree, in Hill's style.

Babe Karo Lemon Turner AKA Black Ace grew up in a farm in Hughes Springs, Texas. He took up the guitar seriously when he moved to Shreveport in the mid-1930's and met Oscar Woods from whom he learned the local slide guitar style, playing the guitar flat across the knees. By 1936 he moved to Fort Worth where he secured a gig broadcasting on local station KFJZ between 1936-1941. As his reputation grew he toured and cut six sides for Decca in 1937 (two sides recorded for ARC in 1936 were never released). War service disrupted his career and he worked a variety of jobs outside of music. Chris Strachwitz of Arhoolie Records and Paul Oliver ventured to Fort Worth in 1960 and recorded an album by him that year. Those recordings were originally issued the following year on Black Ace's only LP. Turner passed in 1972 showing no interest to get back in the music business after his Arhoolie session.

By 1903, Lead Belly was already a "musicianer", a singer and guitarist of some note. He performed for nearby Shreveport audiences in St. Paul's Bottoms, a notorious red-light district there. Lead Belly began to develop his own style of music after exposure to a variety of musical influences on Shreveport's Fannin Street, a row of saloons, brothels, and dance halls in the Bottoms. He celebrates the street in the powerful "Fannin Street" which we feature today:

My mama told me
My sister too
Said, 'The Shreveport women, son,
Will be the death of you

Said to my mama,
'Mama, you don't know
If the Fannin Street women gonna kill me
Well, you might as well let me go

In 1937, Three Fifteen and His Squares, a music group from Shreveport, Louisiana, traveled 200 miles north for a recording session in Hot Springs, Arkansas. The musicians, led by David “315” Blunson, recorded four songs released by Vocalion Records. The lyrics to Blunson’s “Saturday Night on Texas Avenue” pay a colorful tribute to Shreveport’s African American main drag during its heyday:

In a spot in my hometown, I’d like for you to go
And get woke up, and see a great show
We smoke weed, and we say hey-hey
We drink port wine until the break of day
Saturday Night on Texas Avenue

Walk all night from place to place
Shuckin’ and jivin’ trying to get our gait
Some be truckin’ and some be doin’ the Suzie-Q
And if you stay long enough, you’ll be truckin’ too
Saturday Night on Texas Avenue

Little is known of Lonnie Williams and Clarence London. Williams recorded four songs for the Sittin' In With label in 1951. In a 1968 interview label head Bob Shad recalled Williams was recorded at a Shreveport radio station, most likely KWKH. Clarence London was a Shreveport construction worker who had been hanging around Stan Lewis' record shop, begging Lewis to record him. When Art Rupe of Specialty Records came to town, Lewis obliged. London recorded three songs and never recorded again.

During the time period covered by this show, there were several songs that had Shreveport in the title. Today we spin "Shreveport Blues" sung  in 1928 by Lilillian Glinn which makes reference to Shreveport's Texas Avenue. A different song with the same title was recorded by Virginia Liston in 1923. Other songs include Little Brother Montgomery's "Shreveport Farewell", Jelly Roll Morton's "Shreveport" and "Shreveport Stomp", Clarence Williams' "Shreveport Blues" and Leadbelly's "Shreveport County Jail Blues" to name a few examples.

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