ARTIST
SONG
ALBUM
Washboard SamGoing Back To ArkansasWashboard Sam Vol. 4 1939-40
Washboard SamDigging My Potatoes No. 2Washboard Sam Vol. 4 1939-40
Washboard SamTraveling ManWashboard Sam Vol. 5 1940-41
Jazz GillumKey To The HighwayJazz Gillum Vol. 2 1938-41
Jazz GillumWhiskey Headed BuddiesJazz Gillum Vol. 3 1941-46
Jazz GillumLook on Yonder WallJazz Gillum Vol. 4 1946-49
Sonny Boy WilliamsonI Been Dealing With The DevilSonny Boy Williamson Vol.3 1939-41
Sonny Boy WilliamsonJivin' The BluesSonny Boy Williamson Vol.3 1939-41
Sonny Boy WilliamsonShe Was A DreamerSonny Boy Williamson Vol.4 1941-45
Sonny Boy WilliamsonI'm Gonna Catch You SoonSonny Boy Williamson Vol.4 1941-45
Washboard SamEvery Tub Stands On Its Own BottomWashboard Sam Vol. 5 1940-41
Washboard SamLife Is Just A BookWashboard Sam Vol. 5 1940-41
Washboard SamDown At The Bad Man's HallWashboard Sam Vol. 5 1940-41
Jazz GillumThe Blues What AmJazz Gillum Vol. 4 1946-49
Jazz GillumLook What You Are TodayJazz Gillum Vol. 4 1946-49
Jazz GillumGonna Be Some ShootingJazz Gillum Vol. 4 1946-49
Sonny Boy WilliamsonI Have Got To GoSonny Boy Williamson Vol.4 1941-45
Sonny Boy WilliamsonG.M. & O. BluesSonny Boy Williamson Vol.4 1941-45
Sonny Boy WilliamsonSonny Boy's JumpSonny Boy Williamson Vol.4 1941-45
Washboard SamI'm Not The LadWashboard Sam Vol. 6 1941-42
Washboard SamMy Feet Jumped SaltyWashboard Sam Vol. 6 1941-42
Washboard SamFlying Crow BluesWashboard Sam Vol. 6 1941-42
Jazz GillumRoll Dem BonesJazz Gillum Vol. 4 1946-49
Jazz GillumGonna Take My RapJazz Gillum Vol. 4 1946-49
Jazz GillumYou Got to Run Me DownJazz Gillum Vol. 4 1946-49
Sonny Boy WilliamsonStop Breaking DownSonny Boy Williamson Vol.5 1945-47
Sonny Boy WilliamsonElevator WomanSonny Boy Williamson Vol.5 1945-47
Sonny Boy WilliamsonYou're An Old LadySonny Boy Williamson Vol.5 1945-47
Washboard SamGet Down BrotherWashboard Sam Vol. 7 1942-49
Washboard SamRiver Hip MamaWashboard Sam Vol. 7 1942-49
Washboard SamRed River Dam BluesWashboard Sam Vol. 7 1942-49
Washboard SamSoap And Water BluesWashboard Sam Vol. 7 1942-49
Sonny Boy WilliamsonHoodoo HoodooSonny Boy Williamson Vol.5 1945-47
Sonny Boy WilliamsonWonderful TimeSonny Boy Williamson Vol.5 1945-47
Sonny Boy WilliamsonMellow Chick SwingSonny Boy Williamson Vol.5 1945-47

Show notes:

As blues historian Paul Oliver noted, artists like Jazz Gillum, Tampa Red, Big Bill Broonzy, Lonnie Johnson, Washboard Sam and Sonny Boy Williamson, were "playing in the brash, confident manner of Chicago which had been developing through the 'thirties." Sam Charters characterized the sound as the "Bluebird Beat" or more unkindly as the "Melrose Mess" by Mike Rowe in his pioneering book Chicago Blues. As Rowe notes "it was a white businessman, Lester Melrose, who was really responsible for shaping the Chicago sound of the late 30's and 40's." Melrose had said "From March 1934 to February 1951 I recorded at least 90 percent of all rhythm-and-blues talent for RCA Victor and Columbia Records…" As Rowe further explains: "But Melrose had more than a large stable of blues artists under his control. Since only a few of them had regular accompanists most of them would play on each others records and thus Melrose has a completely self-contained unit… …The final stage of this musical incest was completed when they started recording each others songs." The result was a consistent, sometime cookie cutter sound, although the best artists would consistently transcend these limitations. The "Bluebird Sound" anticipated the Chicago blues of the post-war era featuring tight, smooth small band arrangements that were filled out with piano, bass drums and often clarinet or saxophone. Today's show spotlights three Bluebird artists who were a force on the 1940's Chicago scene: Washboard Sam, Sonny Boy Williamson I and Jazz Gillum.

WASHBOARD-SAM-1931Washboard Sam recorded hundreds of records between 1935 and 1949 for the bluebird label, usually with backing by guitarist Big Bill Broonzy. Out of all the washboard players of the era, Sam was the most popular, which was due not only to his washboard talent, but also his skills as a highly imaginative songwriter and powerful, expressive vocalist. As an accompanist, Washboard Sam not only played with Broonzy, but also backed bluesmen like Bukka White, Memphis Slim, and Jazz Gillum. Sam added a phonograph turntable and a couple of cowbells to his washboard for added tone and his washboard playing is consistently driving and swinging. Washboard Sam (born Robert Brown) was the illegitimate son of Frank Broonzy, who also fathered Big Bill Broonzy. Sam was raised in Arkansas, working on a farm. He moved to Memphis in the early '20s to play the blues. While in Memphis, he met Sleepy John Estes and Hammie Nixon and the trio played street corners, collecting tips from passerby's. In 1932, Sam moved to Chicago. Initially he played for tips, but soon he began performing regularly with Big Bill Broonzy. Within a few years, Sam was supporting Broonzy on the guitarist's Bluebird recordings. Soon, he was supporting a number of different musicians on their recording sessions, including pianist Memphis Slim, bassist Ransom Knowling, and a handful of saxophone players, who all recorded for Bluebird. In 1935, Sam began recording for both Bluebird and Vocalion Records. Throughout the rest of the '30s and the '40s, Sam was one of the most popular Chicago bluesmen, selling plenty of records and playing to packed audiences in the Chicago clubs. In 1953, Washboard Sam recorded a session for Chess Records and then retired. In the early '60s, Willie Dixon and Memphis Slim tried to persuade Sam to return to the stage to capitalize on the blues revival. Initially, he refused, but in 1963 began performing concerts in clubs and coffeehouses in Chicago; he even played a handful of dates in Europe in early 1964. He cut his last sides in 1964 before passing in 1966.

Jazz Gillum is usually treated with indifference among blues critics, looked upon as a rather generic performer who typified the mainstream Chicago blues style of the 1930's and 40's. While there's some truth to this, Gillum's recordings were consistently entertaining throughout his sixteen-year recording career punctuated with a fair number of exceptional sides. Gillum was by no means a harmonica virtuoso but he was a very expressive, easygoing singer who penned a number of evocative songs backed by some of the era's best blues musicians. Gillum recorded 100 sides between 1934-49 as a leader in addition to session work with Big Bill Broonzy, Curtis Jones and the State Street Boys. Many of his records were characterized by strongly rhythmic support, credit for which must go largely to Big Bill Broonzy and later guitarist Willie Lacey. William McKinley Gillum was born in Indianola, Mississippi (B.B. King's birthplace as well) on September 11, 1904. He soon learned to play the harmonica. By 1918 he had a job in a drugstore in Greenwood, Mississippi and could often been seen on the streets playing music for tips. Five years later he migrated to Chicago. There he met guitarist Big Bill Broonzy and the two started working club dates around the city as a duo and would soon form an enduring recording partnership. Gillum made his recording debut for the Bluebird label in 1934 with "Early In The Morning" b/w "Harmonica Stomp." The records evidently didn't sell and Gillum didn't record again for two years. Gillum's recordings were very much in the Bluebird mold yet he often rose above the production line sound to record a fair number of high quality blues. Between 1934-1942 Gillum recorded 70 sides, every session featuring the fret work of Big Bill Broonzy. Gillum's most celebrated song during this period was "Key To The Highway" which he cut on May 9, 1940. Both Broonzy and Gillum claimed authorship of the song which was an enduring source of bitterness for Gillum. During World War II, there was a shortage of shellac and J.C. Patrillo, President of the American Federation of Musicians ordered a ban on all recordings. Gillum joined the Army in 1942 and served until 1945. Gillum resumed recording that year and in 1946 cut "Look On Yonder Wall" one of his most famous recordings. Starting in 1946 the brilliant William Lacey took over the guitar chores and his terrific electric work really adds a spark to Gillum's later recordings. Gillum made his last issued recordings as leader on January 25, 1949. Gillum would record once more on a 1961 date with Memphis Slim and Arbee Stidham. On March 29, 1966, during an argument, Gillum was shot in the head and was pronounced dead on arrival at Garfield Park Hospital in Chicago.

Jazz GillumEasily the most important harmonica player of the pre-war era, John Lee Williamson almost single-handedly made the harmonica a major instrument, leading the way for the amazing innovations of Little Walter and others who followed. Already a harp virtuoso in his teens, he learned from Hammie Nixon and Noah Lewis and ran with Sleepy John Estes and Yank Rachell before settling in Chicago in 1934. Sonny Boy signed to Bluebird in 1937. He recorded prolifically for Victor both as a leader and behind others in the vast Melrose stable (including Robert Lee McCoy and Big Joe Williams, who in turn played on some of Williamson's sides). Sonny Boy cut more than 120 sides in all for RCA from 1937 to 1947. John Lee was popular enough that by the 1940s, another blues harp player, Aleck/Alex "Rice" Miller, who was based in Helena, Arkansas, began also using the name Sonny Boy Williamson. His first recording session was supported by the great Big Joe Williams, at the beginning of his distinguished career playing delta blues guitar. After this session Sonny Boy alternated between guitar and piano backups, occasionally using both at the same session. His most frequent accompanists were Big Bill Broonzy and the record company's "house" piano player Blind John Davis. Other famous accompanists over the years were Eddie Boyd, Yank Rachel, Big Maceo and Willie Dixon. But some say the best accompanist was Joshua Altheimer, a piano player who played on the seven numbers of a 1940 session and then died the next year. Writer Pete Welding noted that the only significant difference between Big Joe Williams and Sonny Boy and those of say Muddy Waters and Howling Wolf is the matter of electric amplification. Othewise all the ingredients are the same: guitar, harp, bass and drums. He continues, "Big Joe and John Lee stand as vital, connecting links between the older Mississippi style and those of the postwar years." Sonny Boy Williamson wouldn't live to reap any appreciable rewards from his inventions. He died at the age of 34, while at the zenith of his popularity (his romping "Shake That Boogie" was a national R&B hit in 1947 on Victor), from a violent bludgeoning about the head that occurred during an apparent mugging on the South side. "Better Cut That Out," another storming rocker later appropriated by Junior Wells, became a posthumous hit for Williamson in late 1948. Williamson's style had a profund influence on those who followed including Billy Boy Arnold, Junior Wells, Little Walter, and Snooky Pryor among many others.

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